ANTI-ULCER AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF NELUMBO NUCIFERA GAERTN STALKS IN RATS
Keywords:Anti-ulcer activity, Pylorus ligation, Indomethacin, Nelumbo nucifera
Objective: Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphaeceae) is a well known aquatic herb which has been extensively used traditionally for the treatment of different diseases. Therefore present study was designed to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphaeceae) stalks.
Methods: Anti-ulcer activity of methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) were evaluated in rats using the pylorus ligation and indomethacin induced gastric ulcer models. Biochemical investigation of stomach tissues was also done to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera on oxidant and antioxidant parameters in stomach tissue.
Results: Methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera exhibit significant ulcer protection in the pylorus ligation and Indomethacin induced ulcer model in a dose dependent manner. The results suggested that the Nelumbo nucifera methanolic extract increased the resistance to necrotizing agents, providing a direct, protective effect on the gastric mucous due to their potent oxidant and antioxidant activity.
Conclusion: The results obtained from the present study demonstrated that methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn stalks possesses significant anti-ulcer activity in addition to potent oxidant and antioxidant activity.
Falk GW. Cecil essentials of medicine. WB Saunders Company: Edinburgh; 2001. p. 334-43.
Tripathi KD. Essentials of medical pharmacology. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers: New Delhi; 1999. p. 628-42.
Ojewole EB. Peptic Ulcer Disease. SNAAP Press; 2004. p. 541-64.
Suerbaum S, Michetti P. Helicobacter pylori infection. N Engl J Med 2002;347(15):1175-86.
Rastogi S, Rawat AKS. A comprehensive review on bergenin a potential hepatoprotective and antioxidative phytoconstituent. Herba Polonica 2008;54(2):66-78.
Ariyphisi I, Toshiharu A, Sugimura F, Abe M, Matsuo Y, Honda T. Recurrence during maintenance therapy with histamine H2 receptors antagonist in cases of gastric ulcers. Nikon Univ J Med 1986;28:69-74.
Bi WP, Man HB, Man MQ. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: A review. World J Gastroenterol 2014;20(45):17020-8.
Ayala G, Escobedo-Hinojosa WI, de la Cruz-Herrera CF, Romero I. Exploring alternative treatments for Helicobacter pylori infection. World J Gastroenterol 2014;20(6):1450-69.
Vela SM, Souccar C, Lima-Landman M, Lapa AJ. Inhibition of gastric acid secretion by the aqueous extract and purified extract of Stachytarpheta cayennensis. Planta Med 1997;63(1):36-9.
Goulart YCF, Sela V, Obici S, Vanessa J, Martins C, Otorbone F, et al. Evaluation of Gastric anti-ulcer activity in a hydro-ethanol extract from Kielmeyera coriacea. Braz Arch Bio Tech 2005;48(1):211-6.
Singh R, Madan J, Rao S. Anti-ulcer activity of black pepper against absolute ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in mice. Pharmacog Mag 2008;4(15):232-5.
Aguwa CN. Therapeutic basis of clinical pharmacy in the tropics. SNAAP Press; 2004. p. 551-2.
Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Publication: New Delhi, India; 1956. p. 174.
Khare CP. Indian herbal remedies: Rational Western Therapy, Ayurvedic, and Other Traditional Usage, Botany. Springer; 2004. p. 326-27.
Mukherjee PK, Mukherjee D, Maji AK, Rai S, Heinrich M. The sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)-phytochemical and therapeutic profile. J Pharm Pharmacol 2009;61(4):407-22.
Mota KS, Dias GE, Pinto ME, Luiz-Ferreira A, Souza-Brito AR, Hiruma-Lima CA, Barbosa-Filho JM, Batista LM. Flavonoids with gastroprotective activity. Mol 2009;14(3):979-12.
Vasconcelos PCP, Kushima H, Andreo M, Hiruma-Lima CA, Vilegas W, Takahira RK, Pellizon CH. Studies of gastric mucosa regeneration and safety promoted by Mouriri pusa treatment in acetic acid ulcer model. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;115(2):293-01.
Mukherjee PK, Das J, Balasubramanian R, Saha K, Pal M, Saha BP. Anti-diarrhoeal evaluation of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome extract. Indian J Pharmacol 1995;27(4):262-4.
Mukherjee PK, Das J, Saha K, Pal M, Saha BP. Diuretic activity of rhizome of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphacaceae). Phytother Res 1996;10(5):424-5.
Mukherjee PK, Das J, Saha K, Giri SN, Pal M, Saha BP. Antipyretic activity of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome extract. Indian J Exp Biol 1996;34(3):275-6.
Mukherjee PK. Quality control of herbal drugs-an approach to evaluation of botanicals. Business Horizons: New Delhi; 2002. p. 250-4.
Mukherjee PK, Saha K, Saha BP. Effect of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome extract on blood sugar level in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1997;58(3):207-13.
Wu MJ, Wang L, Weng CY, Yen JH. Antioxidant activity of methanol extract of the lotus leaf (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.). Am J Chin Med 2003;31(5):687-98.
Jung HA, Kim JE, Chung HYA, Choi JS. Antioxidant principles of Nelumbo nucifera stamens. Arch Pharm Res 2003;26(4):279-85.
Dubey T, Srivastava AK, Nagar H, Mishra BK, Mishra SS. Nephroprotective activity of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. roots, leaves and flowers on gentamicin induced Nephrotoxicity. AJPER 2014;3(4):134-51.
Mukherjee PK, Saha K, Das J, Pal M, Saha BP. Studies on the anti-inflammatory activity of rhizomes of Nelumbo nucifera. Planta Med 1997;63(4):367-9.
Rai S, Wahile A, Mukherjee K, Saha BP, Mukherjee PK. Antioxidant activity of Nelumbo nucifera (sacred lotus) seeds. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;104(3):322-7.
Mukherjee PK, Balasubramanian R, Saha K, Saha BP, Pal M. Antibacterial efficiency of Nelumbo nucifera (Nymphaeaceae) rhizomes extract. Indian Drugs 1995;32:274-6.
Mukherjee PK, Mukherjee K, Pal M, Saha BP. Wound healing potential of Nelumbo nucifera (Nymphaceae) rhizome extract. Phytomedicine 2000;7:66-73.
Khandelwal KR. Practical pharmacognosy techniques and experiments. Nirali Prakashan: India; 2005.
Evans WC. Trease and evans pharmacognosy. WB Saunders: New York; 2005.
Shay H, Komarov SA, Fels SS, Meranze D, Grunstein M, Siplet H. A Simple method for uniform production of gastric ulcers in rats. Gastroenterol 1945;5:43-61.
Guidobono F, Pagani F, Ticozzi C, Sibilia V, Pecile A, Netti C. Protection by amylin of gastric erosions induced by indomethacin or ethanol in rats. Br J Pharmacol 1997;120(4):581-6.
Sedlak J, Lindsay RH. Estimation of total, protein-bound, and nonprotein sulfhydryls groups in tissue with Ellman's reagent. Anal Biochem 1968;25(1):192-05.
Bradley PP, Priebat DA, Christensen RD, Rothstein G. Measurement of cutaneous inflammation: Estimation of neutrophil content with an enzyme marker. J Invest Dermatol 1982;78:206-9.
Ohkawa H, Ohishi H, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxide in animal tissues by thiobarbutiric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1979;95(2):351-8.
Wallace JL, Granger DN. The cellular and molecular basis of gastric mucosal defense. FASEB J 1996;10(7):731-40.
Tandon R, Khanna HD, Dorababu M, Goel RK. Oxidative stress and antioxidants status in peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2004;48(1):115-8.
Garner A, Flemstrom G, Heylings JR. Effects of anti-inflammatory agents and prostaglandins on acid and bicarbonate secretions in the amphibian isolated gastric mucosa. Gastroenterol 1979;77(3):451-7.
Berenguer B, Sanchez LM, Quilez A, Lopez-Barreiro M, de Haro O, Galvez J, et al. Protective and antioxidant effects of Rhizophora mangle L. against NSAID-induced gastric ulcers. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;103(2):194-200.
Nwafor PA, Okwuasaba FK, Binda LG. Anti diarrheal and anti ulcerogenic effects of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens root in rats. J Ethanopharmacol 2000;72(3):421-7.
Pandian RS, Anuradha CV, Viswanathan P. Gastroprotective effect of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) on experimental gastric ulcer in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;81(3):393-7.
Borrelli F, Izzo AA, The plant kingdom as a source of anti-ulcer remedies. Phytother Res 2000;14(8):581-91.
Vane JR. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis as a mechanism of action of aspirin-like drugs. Nat New Biol 1971;231:232-5.
Soll AH, Weinstein WM, Kurata J, McCarthy D. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and peptic ulcer disease. Ann Intern Med 199;114(4):307-19.
Ferreira SJ, Vane JR. New aspects of the mode of actions of NSAIDs. Ann Rev Pharmacol 1974;14:57-70.
Menguy R, Desbaillets L. Role of inhibition of gastric mucous secretion in the phenomenon of gastric mucosal injury by indomethacin. Am J Dig Dis 1967;12(9):862-6.
Meister A, Anderson ME. Glutathione. Annu Rev Biochem 1983;52:711-60.
Dalle-Donne I, Rossi R, Giustarini D, Milzani A, Colombo R. Protein carbonyl groups as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Clin Chim Acta 2003;329(1-2):23-38.
Chattopadhyay I, Bandyopadhyay U, Biswas K, Maity P, Banerjee RK. Indomethacin inactivates gastric peroxidase to induce reactive-oxygen-mediated gastric mucosal injury and curcumin protects it by preventing peroxidase inactivation and scavenging reactive oxygen. Free Radic Biol Med 2006;40(8):1397-08.
Odabasoglu F, Halici Z, Cakir A, Halici M, Aygun H, Suleyman H, et al. Beneficial effects of vegetable oils (corn, olive and sunflower oils) and alpha-tocopherol on anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal profiles of indomethacin in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2008;591(1-3):300-6.
Hiraishi H, Terano A, Ota S, Mutoh H, Sugimoto T, Harada T, et al. Protection of cultured rat gastric cells against oxidant-induced damage by exogenous glutathione. Gastroenterol 1994;106(5):1199-07.
Suzuki M, Mori M, Miura S, Suematsu M, Fukumura D, Kimura H, et al. Omeprazole attenuates oxygen-derived free radical production from human neutrophils. Free Radical Biol Med 1996;21(5):727-31.
Peralta C, Rull R, Rimola A, Deulofeu R, Rosello-Catafau J, Gelpi E, et al. Endogenous nitric oxide and exogenous nitric oxide supplementation in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat. Transplant 2001;71(4):529-36.
Nielsen F, Mikkelsen BB, Nielsen JB, Andersen HR, Grandjean P. Plasma malondialdehyde as biomarker for oxidative stress: reference interval and effects of life-style factors. Clin Chem 1997;43(7):1209-14.