INVESTIGATING THE ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIOXIDANT, AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF AQUEOUS AND HYDROETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF OCIMUM BASILICUM AND OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM ON SOME GERMS RESPONSIBLE FOR AEROBIC VAGINITIS
Keywords:Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum gratissimum, Antibacterial activity, Antioxidant activity, Polyphenols, Anti-inflammatory activity
Objective: The present work evaluates the antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum on germs responsible for aerobic vaginitis.
Methods: University Teaching Hospital of Yaoundé and Central Hospital of Yaoundé provided the germ (Staphylococcus aureus) and isolates (Enterobacter cloacae and Providencia stuartii). The extracts were obtained by maceration of the plants in water and hydroethanolic system. Phytochemical screening was assessed using the standard method; sensitivity and inhibition tests were carried out on agar medium and microplates in liquid medium. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), and β-carotene assays; total polyphenols content was obtained by the Folin Ciocalteu assay; anti-inflammatory activity by denaturation of ovalbumin.
Results: Flavonoids, catechin, and tannins were abundant in the hydroethanolic extracts (56.65±3.89 and 228.94±8.42 mg EAA/g, respectively). The extracts were bactericidal for S. aureus and bacteriostatic for P. stuartii and E. cloacae. The hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of O. gratissimum has the best anti-radical activity 23.08±3.12, while that of the leaves of O. basilicum had the best-reducing power (388.36±9.96). The anti-inflammatory activity was found to be significant in the leaf extracts studied with IC50 values of 0.358±0.013 mg/ml for O. basilicum to 0.269±0.008 mg/ml for O. gratissimum, thus justifying their anti-inflammatory properties. The equivalent contents of primary and secondary antioxidants of the extracts were also obtained.
Conclusion: The hydroethanolic extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum have antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties.
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