• Alpana Arya Department of Zoology, PMB Gujrati College, Indore, India
  • Guru Dutta Sharma PMB Gujrati college,Indore


Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in combination at sub-lethal concentrations for 32 days on histochemical localization of heavy metals and on serum biochemical parameters such as glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and total protein concentrations in Channa punctatus.

Methods: Biochemical estimations of serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), glucose and different lipids were done using the standard protocols provided in the commercial kits purchased from Reckon diagnostics Pvt. Ltd., India. Histochemical analyses of liver, kidney and gills were determined by sulphide–silver method and heavy metal (cadmium and mercury) concentrations in gills, kidneys and liver were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy.

Results: Glucose, lipid, total protein and SGPT levels were significantly altered in fish exposed to Cd or Hg salt alone. However, combined exposure of Cd and Hg normalized all the aforesaid biochemical indices. The accumulation of heavy metals was in following order: cadmium content was more in kidney>liver>gills; whereas, Hg content was more in liver>kidney>gills. Histochemical analyses revealed that mercury accumulation was comparatively more than that of cadmium in all the tissues. Several histological abnormalities were noted in the liver, kidney and gills of the Cd or Hg treated animals. However, Cd in combination with Hg caused alleviation in the toxic effect of Hg on histochemical and biochemical parameters. Results of our study showed that Cd may have a protective effect against Hg toxicity.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that cadmium may protect mercury-induced toxicity.


Keywords: Cadmium, Mercury, C. punctatus, Liver, Kidney, Blood glucose, Atomic absorption spectroscopy


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Alpana Arya, Department of Zoology, PMB Gujrati College, Indore, India
Guru Dutta Sharma, PMB Gujrati college,Indore


1. Merian E. Metals and their Compounds in the Environment, Occurrence, Analysis and Biological Relevance, UCH, Weinheim, New York: 1991. p. 25
2. Clarkson TW. The three modern faces of mercury. Environ Health Perspect 2002;110:11–23.
3. Hedayati A, Safahieh A, Savari A, Marammazi JG. Assessment of aminotransferase enzymes in yellowfin sea Bream (Acanthopagrus latus) under experimental condition as biomarkers of mercury pollution. World J Fish Mar Sci 2010;2:186–92.
4. Thirumavalavan R. Effect of mercury on lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in fresh water fish labeo rohita. J Int J Curr Res 2010;8:108–12.
5. Heinz GH, Hoffman DJ. Methylmercury chloride and selenomethionine interactions on health and reproduction in mallards. Environ Toxicol Chem 1998;17:139–45.
6. Cataldi E, Di Marco P, Mandich A, Cataudella S. Serum parameters of adriatic sturgeon acipenser naccarii (Pisces: Acipenseriformes): Effects of temperature and stress. Comp Biochem Physiol A 1998;121:351–4.
7. Folmar LC. Effects of chemical contaminants on blood chemistry of teleost fish: a bibliography and synopsis of selected effects. Environ Toxicol Chem 1993;12:337–75.
8. APHA In: Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water 13th ed. American Public Health Association, New York, USA; 1971. p. 874.
9. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin-phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 1951;193:265-75.
10. Brunk U, Brun A, Skold G. Histochemical demonstration of heavy metals with sulfide silver method. A methodological study. Acta Histochem 1968;31:345-7.
11. Liang Y, Cheung RYH, Wong MH. Reclamation of wastewater for polyculture of freshwater fish: bioaccumulation of trace metals in fish. Water Res 1999;33:2690–70.
12. Mzimela HM, Wepener V, Cyrus DP. Seasonal variation of selected metals in sediments, water and tissues of the groovy mullet, Liza dumerelii (Mugilidae) from the Mhlathuze Estuary, South Africa. Mar Pollut Bull 2003;46:659–64.
13. Storelli MM, Giacominelli-Stuffler R, Storelli A, Marcotrigiano GO. Accumulation of mercury, cadmium, lead and arsenic in swordfish and bluefin tuna from the Mediterranean Sea: a comparative study. Mar Pollut Bull 2005;50:1004–7.
14. Regine MB, Gilles D, Yannick D, Alain B. Mercury distribution in fish organs and food regimes: significant relationships from twelve species collected in french guiana (Amazonian basin). Sci Total Environ 2006;368:262–70.
15. Bebianno MJ, Santos C, Canario J, Gouveia N, Sena-Carvalho D, Vale C. Hg and metallothionein-like proteins in the black scabbardfish Aphanopus carbo. Food Chem Toxicol 2007;45:1443–52.
16. De Conto Cinier C, Petit-Ramel M, Faure R, Bortolato M. Cadmium accumulation and metallothionein biosynthesis in Cyprinus carpio tissues. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 1998;61:793–9.
17. Pritchard JB, Bend J. Mechanisms controlling the renal excretion of xenoblotics in fish effects of chemical structure. Drug Metab Rev 1984;15:655-71.
18. Ung CY, Lam SH, Hlaing MM, Winata CL, Korzh S, Mathavan S, et al. Mercury-induced hepatotoxicity in zebrafish: in vivo mechanistic insights from transcriptome analysis, phenotype anchoring and targeted gene expression validation. BMC Genomics 2010;11:212-8.
19. Mieiro CL, Pacheco M, Pereira ME, Duarte AC. Mercury distribution in key tissues of fish (Liza aurata) inhabiting a contaminated estuary-implications for human and ecosystem health risk assessment. J Environ Monit 2009;11:1004-12.
20. Jacobson-Kram D, Keller KA. Toxicology testing handbook. Appleton and Lange: New York; 2001. p. 128–32.
21. Gagnon A, Jumarie C, Hontela A. Effects of Cu on plasma cortisol and cortisol secretion by adrenocorticalcells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquat Toxicol 2006;78:59–65.
22. Pratap HB, Wendelaar-BSE. Effect of waterborne cadmium on plasma cortisol and glucose in the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Comp Biochem Physiol 1990;95:313–7.
23. Bedii CK, Kenan N. The effects of cadmium on levels of glucose in serum and glycogen reserves in the liver and muscle tissues of cyprinus carpio (L., 1758). Turk J Vet Anim Sci 2005;29:113–7.
24. Chowdhury MJ, Pane EF, Wood CM. Physiological effects of dietary cadmium acclimation and waterborne cadmium challenge in rainbow trout: respiratory, ionoregulatory, and stress parameters. Comp Biochem Physiol Part C: Toxicol Pharmacol 2004;139:163-73.
25. Kazlauskienë N, Vosylienë MZ. Peculiarities of the physiological responses of rainbow trout to copper. Acta Zoo Litua Hydro 1999;9:1392–657.
26. Palanivelu P, Vijayavel K, Ezhilarasi balasubramanian S, Balasubramanian MP. Influence of insecticidal derivatives (Cartap Hydrochloride) from the marine polychaete on certain enzymes of the freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus. J Environ Biol 2005;26:191-6.
27. Bernet D, Schmidt H, Wahli T, Burkhardt-Holm P. Effluent from a sewage treatment works causes changes in serum chemistry of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2001;48:140–7.
28. Kothari S, Choughule N. Ameliorative stroke of selenium against toxicological effects of mercuric chloride in liver of freshwater catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). Environ Toxicol 2014. doi: 10.1002/tox.21967. [Article in Press]
29. Yang J, Chen HC. Effects of gallium on common carp, Cyprinus carpio; Acute test, serum biochemistry and erythrocyte morphology. Chemosphere 2003;53:877-82.
30. Sweety R, Remyla, Mathan R, Kenneth S, Sajwan K. Influence of zinc on cadmium induced haematological and biochemical responses in a freshwater teleost fish Catla catla. Fish Physiol Biochem 2008;34:169–74.
31. Oner M, Atli G, Canli M. Changes in serum biochemical parameters of fresh water fish Oreochromis niloticus following prolonged metal (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn) exposures. Environ Toxicol Chem 2008;27:360-6.
32. IÅŸcan M, Coban T, IÅŸcan M. Combined effect of cadmium and nickel on rat hepatic monooxygenases: possible stimulation of certain cytochrome P-450 isozymes. Toxicol Lett 1992;62:191-9.
33. Kapila M, Ragothaman G. Mercury, Copper and cadmium induced changes in the total protein level muscle tissue of an edible estuarine fish Boieophthalmus Dessumieri. Cuv J Environ Biol 1999;20:231-4.
34. Dwivedi S, Chezhian A, Kabilan N, Kumar TS. Synergistic effect of mercury and chromium on the histology and physiology of Fish, Tilapia Mossambica (Peters, 1852) and Lates calcarifer (Bloch, 1790). Toxicol Int 2012;19:235-40.
286 Views | 799 Downloads
How to Cite
Arya, A., and G. D. Sharma. “COMBINED EFFECTS OF CADMIUM AND MECURY ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN LIVER, KIDNEY AND GILLS OF CHANNA PUNCTATUS (BLOCH)”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 8, no. 8, June 2015, pp. 117-20,
Original Article(s)