• Kushali Jain D Sarada Vilas College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics Krishnamurthy Puram Mysore 570004
  • Jayanthi C Sarada Vilas College of Pharmacy
  • Mahaveer Singh Sarada Vilas College of Pharmacy
  • Roopa G, K Sarada Vilas College of Pharmacy
  • Hanumanthachar Joshi Sarada Vilas College of Pharmacy


VitaminB12 helps your body to use fat and carbohydrates for energy and makes new protein. It is also important for normal blood, cells, and nerves. Most people get enough vitaminB12 in their diet, but a deficiency may occur in certain health conditions (e. g., poor nutrition, stomach/intestinal problems, infection, cancer). Serious VitaminB12 deficiency results in anemia and nerve damage if left untreated. VitaminB12 deficiency usually treated by parenteral and oral dosage forms, but these routes of administration is associated with absorption and compliance issue. More recently, it has been demonstrated that the function of this missing intrinsic factor is to aid the absorption of Vitamin B12 and deficiency termed as pernicious anemia. Pernicious anemia may be satisfactorily treated by parenteral administration of the extrinsic factor, Vitamin B12is only slightly absorbed when given by mouth to patients with pernicious anemia, but a hematological response may be obtained if relatively large doses are given by this route. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety profile of appropriate vitamin B12formulation in the treatment of pernicious anemia.


Keywords: Vitamin B12, Oral, Buccal, Intra muscular, Intrinsic factor, Pernicious anemia


Download data is not yet available.


1. Mélie Charest, RD M. Sc. Milk: An Essential Source of Vitamin B12-Other Nutrients-Nutrients in Milk Products | Dairy Nutrition; 2014.
2. Milly Ryan-Harshman. Vitamin B12 and health. Can Fam Physician 2008;54:536-41.
3. Matte JJ. Bioavailability of vitamin B12 in cows’ milk. Br J Nutr 2012;107:61-6.
4. Edith Lahner, Bruno Annibale, Pernicious anemia. New insights from a gastroenterological point of view. World J Gastroenterol 2009;15:5121-8.
5. Laurence Knott. Pernicious anemia and B12 deficiency patient. co. uk 2013;731:26.
6. Barnabas Szaboa b, Nikolett Kallaic, Gergo Tothd, Gergely Hetenyia, Romana Zelkoa. Drug release profiles and microstructural characterization of cast and freeze dried vitamin B12 buccal films. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2013;89:83-7.
7. Kalaipriya Madhaiyana, Radhakrishnasriddharb, Subramaniyan Sundarrajanb, Jayarama Reddy Venugopala, Seeram Ramakrishna. Vitamin B12 loaded polycaprolactonenanofibers: a novel transdermal route for the water soluble energy supplement deliveryInternational. J Pharm 2013;444:70–6.
8. Fumiowatanabe. Vitamin B12 sources and bioavailability the society. Exp Biol Med 2007;232:1266-74.
9. Inna Rudoy, Ilia Volkov, Yan Press. Use of vitamin B12 for treatment of mucosal lesions; 2010.
10. Joanne Marie. Vitamin B-12's mechanism of action in the human body; 2014. p. 26.
11. Seetharam, Yammani. “Cobalamin transport proteins and their cell-surface receptors”. Expert Rev Mol Med 2003;5:1-18.
12. EK Blackburn, H Cohen, GM Wilson. Oral treatment of pernicious anaemia with a combined vitamin B12 and intrinsic factor preparation. Br Med J 1955;2:461–3.
13. FS Mooney, JG Heathcote. Oral treatment of pernicious anaemia with vitaminb12-peptide. Br Med J 1961;1:232–5.
14. Pernicious anemia Source; 2014. Available from: URL: http://en.wikipedia. org/w/index. php, Pernicious_anemia. [Last accessed on 20 Jan 2015]
15. Castelli MC, Wong DF, Friedman K, Riley MG. Pharmacokinetics of oral cyanocobalamin formulated with sodium N-[8-(2-hydroxybenzoyl)amino]caprylate (SNAC): an open-label, randomized, single-dose, parallel-group study in healthy male subjects. Clin Ther 2011;33:934-45.
16. EK Blackburn, H Cohen, GM Wilson. Oral treatment of pernicious anaemia with a combined vitamin B12 and intrinsic factor preparation. Br Med J 1955;2:461-3.
17. Chinna Reddy P, Chaitanya KSC, Madhusudan Rao Y. A review on bioadhesive buccal drug delivery systems: current status of formulation and evaluation methods. Daru J Pharm Sci 2011;19:385-403.
18. JD Smart. Drug delivery using buccal-adhesive systems. Adv Drug Delivery Rev 1993;11:253–70.
19. Berk L, Castle WB, Welch AD, Heinle RW, Anker R. Absorption of vitamin B12 in pernicious anaemia. Br Med J 1950;21:915-9.
20. N Vidyasagar, K Mallikarjunarao, K Gnanaprakash, A Divya, A Sowjanya, M Gobinath. A review on buccal drug delivery system. J Pharm Res Dev 2012;1:29–35.
21. Carol Rees Parrish, Liz da Silva. Stacey McCray nutrition issues in gastroenterology. Series #70 Practical Gastroenterol 2009;34:39-46.
22. M Cristinacastelli, Kristen friedman, James sherry, Karen brazzillo, Lisegenoble, Prateekbhargava. Comparing the efficacy and tolerability of a new daily oral vitamin B12 formulation and intermittent intramuscular vitamin B12 in normalizing low cobalamine levels; 2011. p. 358-71.
23. Josep Vidal-Alaball, Christopher Butler, Rebecca Cannings-John, Andrew Goringe, Kerry Hood, Andrew McCaddon, et al. Alexandra papaioannou oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 forvitamin B12 deficiency; 2009.
24. Michael R Kolber, Sherilyn KD, Houle R. Oral vitamin B12: a cost-effective alternative; 2014. p. 111-2.
557 Views | 31090 Downloads
How to Cite
D, K. J., J. C, M. Singh, R. G. K, and H. Joshi. “COMPARISON STUDY OF VITAMIN-B12 FOR ITS EFFICACY AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF VARIOUS FORMULATIONS IN THE TREATMENT OF PERNICIOUS ANEMIA”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 7, no. 13, Aug. 2015, pp. 6-8,