ANTIFUNGAL PHYTOPHTHORA PALMIVORA FROM CLOVE BUDS (SYZYGIUM AROMATICUM L.)
Keywords:Syzygiumaromaticum, Eugenol, Phytophthorapalmivora, Agar well diffusion
Objective: Clove buds (Syzygiumaromaticum) have been reported as a natural fungicide and could be an alternative fungicide for Phytophthorapalmivora one of pathogenic fungi in Cacao plantations. The aim of this research was to evaluate an antifungal Phytophthora of the essential oil, extract, fraction, bioactive compounds from clove buds.
Methods: Successive extractions of clove buds were performed by maceration with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Fractionation and purification were performed using vacuum liquid chromatography and column chromatography. Identification of the isolated compounds was performed by thin layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Agar well diffusion method was used as the assay method and then the percentage radial growth inhibition of Phytophthoramy celium was calculated on the fifth days.
Results: At 10 mg/ml, the n-hexane extract showed the highest inhibition 90.00 %, followed by ethyl acetate extract, essential oil and methanol extract with 78.00 %, 72.72 %, and 29.17 % inhibition, respectively. Two active fractions from vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) of n-hexane extract were obtained with 49.29 % (F-2), and 90.00 % (F-5) inhibition, respectively at 5 mg/ml. Two active subfractions were obtained from column chromatography with inhibition 8.79 % (F-A) and 89.01 % (F-B), at 5 mg/ml. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography (GC) showed that F-B consists of one of a compound having the same Rf and Rt values that of a eugenolauthentic marker. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data showed that the major compound in F-A was caryophyllene (M 204), and F-B was eugenol (F-B1) (M 164) and acetyl eugenol (F-B2) (M 206).
Conclusion: Eugenol and eugenol acetate were the main active compounds effective in inhibiting as antifungal P. palmivora.
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