• B. Jayalakshmi Maharani’s Science College for Women
  • K. A. Raveesha University of Mysore, Manasagangotri
  • M. Murali University of Mysore
  • K. N. Amruthesh Applied Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Studies in Botany, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570006, Karnataka, India


Objective: In the present research, a clear systematic investigation of antibacterial and antioxidant potential of ambadi variety of P. betle of Mysore region has been carried out.

Methods: Antibacterial activity of aqueous and solvent extracts of Piper betle L. was evaluated by agar cup diffusion and disc diffusion methods against some common pathogenic bacteria. The antioxidant property of all the solvent extracts were evaluated by diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. The IC50 values were calculated and compared with standard BHT and AA.

Results: The results indicated that methanol and chloroform extracts of this variety recorded significant antibacterial activity and all the extracts recorded good radical scavenging capacity. Phytochemical analysis revealed that phenols, tannins, flavanoids, glycosides and proteins are present in aqueous, methanol and petroleum ether extracts.

Conclusion: The results obtained in this study clearly indicate that P. betle extracts has a significant potential to use as antibacterial agent. The free radical scavenging capability by DPPH was better and IC50 value found was lesser than the standard used for all the extracts, which suggest that P. betle extracts have potent antioxidant activity. The solvent extracts are effective against free radical mediated diseases


Keywords: P. betle, Antibacterial, Antioxidant, Minimum inhibitory concentration


Download data is not yet available.


1. World Health Report. Geneva, Switzerland; 2003. p. 1-50.
2. Ragunath D. Emerging antibiotic resistance in bacteria with special reference. Indian J Biosci 2008;33:593-603.
3. Raskin L, Ribnicky DM, Komanytsky S, Llic N, Poulev A, Borisjuk N, Beinker A, et al. Plants and human health in the twenty first century. Trends Biotechnol 2002;20:522-31.
4. Mahady GB, Huang Y, Doyle BJ, Locklear T. Natural products as antibacterial agents. Stud Nat Prod Chem 2008;35:423-44.
5. Coudert PC, Rubat C, Sautou V, Bastide M, Chopineau J. The free radicals. Actual Pharmacol 1994;321:37-46.
6. Rashid HA, Qureshi MZ, Raza SA, William J, Arshad M. Quantitative determination of antioxidant potential of Artemisia Persica. Ann Univ Bucuresti Chim 2010;19:23-30.
7. Ebrahimabadi AH, Ebrahimabadi EH, Djafari-Bidgoli Z, Kashi FJ, Asma M, Hossein B. Composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and extracts of Stachys inflata Benth from Iran. Food Chem 2010;119:452-8.
8. Terao J, Piskula MK. Flavonoids as inhibitors of lipid peroxidation in membranes. In: CA Rice-Evans, L Packer. Ed. Flavonoids in health and disease. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1997. p. 277-95.
9. Islam KM, Howlader MA, Kundu GC, Bulbul IJ, Ahsan MR. Free radical scavenging activity of chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of leaves of P. betle L. Libyan Agric Res Cen J Intl 2010;13:384-7.
10. Wealth of India. Publications and information Directorate, CSIR; New Delhi; 1980. p. 84-94.
11. Udayan PS, Balachandran I. Medicinal Plants of Arya Vaidya Sala Herb Garden, Araya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal, Kerala; 2009.
12. Tewari SN, Nayak M. Activity of four plant leaf extracts against three fungal pathogens of rice. Trop Agric 1991;68:373-5.
13. Majumdar B, Chaudhari SGR, Bandyopadhyay SK. Effect of ethanol extract of P. betle Linn leaf on healing of NSAID-induced experimental ulcer-a novel role of free radical scavening action. Indian J Exp Biol 2003;42:311-5.
14. Saravanan G, Nagarajan S. ‘Wound healing activity of Curcuma aromatic and P. betle’. Fitotherapia 1990;61:458-9.
15. Saravanan R, Prakasam A, Ramesh B, Pugalendi KV. Influence of P. betle on hepatic marker enzymes and tissue antioxidant status in ethanol-treated wistar rats. J Med Food 2002;5:197-204.
16. Santhakumari P, Prakasam A, Pugalendi KV. Modulation of oxidative stress parameters by treatment with P. betle leaf in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Indian J Pharm 2003;35:373-8.
17. Pin KY, Chuah AL, Rashih AA, Mazura MP, Fadzureena J, Vimala S, et al. Antioxidant and inflammatory activities of extracts of betle leaves (P. betle) from solvents with different polarities. J Trop Forest Sci 2010;22:448-55.
18. Al-Adhroey AH, Nor ZM, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Amran AA, Mahmud R. Antimalarial activity of methanolic leaf extract of P. betle L. Molecules 2010;16:107-18.
19. Wirotesangthong M, Inagaki N, Tankaka H, Thankijchatoenpath W, Nagai H. Inhibitory effects of P. betle on production of allergic mediators by bone marrow-derived mast cells and lung epithelial cells. Int Immunopharmacol 2008;8:453-7.
20. Ratnasooriya WD, Premakumara GAS. P. betle leaves reversibly inhibits fertility of male rats. Vidyodaya J Sci 1997;7:15-21.
21. Sugumaran M, Gandhi SM, Sankarnarayanan K, Yokesh M, Poornima M, Rajasekhar SR. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of vellaikodi variety of P. betle Linn leaf oil against dental pathogens. Intern J Pharm Tech Res 2011;3:2135-9.
22. Rajeshbabu P, Ayyanar M, Rasool SK, Shariff MA, Thangaveli S. In vitro antibacterial activity of P. betle L. and Black betle CV Kamar leaves against Staphyloccus aureus and Streptococcus pneumonia. J Pharm Res 2011;4:2223-5.
23. Chakraborty D, Shah B. Antimicrobial, antioxidative and anti-hemolytic activity of P. betle leaf extracts. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011;3:192-9.
24. Ghanwate NA, Thakare P. Antimicrobial and synergistic activity of ingredients of betel quid on oral and enteric pathogens. Biosci Dis 2012;3:47-51.
25. Perez C, Pauli M, Bazerque P. An antibiotic assay by the well agar method. Acta Biol Med Exp 1990;15:113–5.
26. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Performance standards for Susceptibility Testing; Twenty fifth International Supplement M100-S12 (M2). NCCLS Wayne; 2015.
27. Das K, Tiwari RK, Shrivastava DK. ‘Techniques for evaluation of medicinal plant products as antimicrobial agent: Current methods and future trends’. J Med Plants Res 2010;4:104-11.
28. Qaiyami S. Macro and Microdilution methods of antimicrobial susceptibility Testing. In: Schwalbe R, Steele-Moore L, Goodwin AC. Eds. Antimicrobial Suscebtibility Testing Protocols, Taylor and Francis Group, New York, USA; 2007. p. 75-81.
29. Blois MS. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 1958;181:1199-200.
30. Jayabharathi J, Thanikachalam V, Rajendraprasad N, Saravanan K, Perumal MV. Antioxidant potential and antimicrobial screening of some novel imidazole derivatives: greenway efficient one pot synthesis. Med Chem Res 2012;21:1850-60.
31. Green LC, Wagner DA, Glogowski J, Skipper PL, Wishnok JK, Tannenbaum SR. Analysis of nitrate, nitrite and [15N] nitrate in biological fluids. Anal Biochem 1982;126:131–8.
32. Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. Chapman and Hall Publications, London; 1998. p. 7-8.
33. Shinde V, Dhalwal K, Mahadik KR. Some issues related to pharmacognosy. Pharmacogn Rev 2008;3:1-5.
34. Cleidson V, Machado de Souza S, Elza FAS, Artur S Jr. Screening methods to determine antibacterial activity of natural products. Braz J Microbiol 2007;38:369-80.
35. Gupte S. The short text book of medical microbiology. 9th edn, Jaype Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi; 2006. p. 43-56.
36. Shukla R, Satish V, Singh VK, Kumar S, Gupta S, Gavani U. Antibacterial activity of fresh leaves of P. betle L. Pharm Res 2009;1:110-9.
37. Fawad AB, Hashmi AN, Mahboob A, Zahid M, Hamid B, Muhammad SA, et al. In-vitro antibacterial activity of P. betle extacts. J Appl Pharm 2009;3:639-46.
38. Sharma A, Bhardwaj S, Mann AS, Jain A, Kharya MD. Screening methods of antioxidant activity: an overview. Pharmacogn Rev 2007;2:232-8.
39. Martinez G, Giuliani A, Leon OS, Perez G, Nunez SAJ. Effect of Mangifera indica L. extract on protein and hepatic microsome peroxidation. Phytother Res 2001;15:581-5.
40. Paradini RS. Toxicity of oxygen from naturally occurring redox active pro-oxidants. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 1995;29:101-18.
41. Dasgupta N, Bratati De. Antioxidant activity of P. betle L. leaf extracts in vitro. Food Chem 2004;88:219-24.
42. Cushine TP, Lamb AJ. Antimicrobial activity of flavanoids. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2005;26:343-56.
43. Buchler DR, Miranda C. Antioxidant activities of flavanoids. Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University; 2004. Available from: URL: [Last accessed on 25 Feb 2015]
44. Mula S, Banerjee D, Patro BS, Battacharya S, Barik A, Bandyopadyay SK, et al. Inhibitory properties of the P. betle phenolics against photosensitization-induced biological damages. Bioorg Med Chem 2008;16:2932-8.
45. Nalina T, Rahim ZH. The crude aqueous extracts of P. betle L. and its antibacterial effect towards Syreptococcus mutans. Am J Biotech Biochem 2007;3:10-5.
46. Saleem M, Nazir M, Ali MS, Hussain H, Lee YS, Riaz N, et al. Antimicrobial natural products: an update on future antibiotic drug candidates. Nat Prod Rep 2010;27:238-54.
676 Views | 716 Downloads
How to Cite
Jayalakshmi, B., K. A. Raveesha, M. Murali, and K. N. Amruthesh. “PHYTOCHEMICAL, ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT STUDIES ON LEAF EXTRACTS OF PIPER BETLE L.”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 7, no. 11, Aug. 2015, pp. 23-29,
Original Article(s)