ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PROFILES OF BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM CHICKEN DROPPINGS IN DAR ES SALAAM
Objective: To determine resistance profiles of bacteria isolated from chicken droppings.
Methods: It was a cross-sectional study involving collection of fresh chicken droppings from 100 chickens from 13 localities; followed by microbiological analysis using standard procedures. Multiple antibiotic resistance indices (MAR) were also determined for each of the isolated bacteria.
Results: A total of 188 bacteria were isolated and subjected to susceptibility testing against 9 commonly used antibiotics. All tested bacteria exhibited multiple resistance to the antibiotics with MAR rates in this order Escherichia coli>Pseudomonas aeruginosa>Klebsiella pneumoniae>Staphylococcus aureus. More than half of P. aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi isolates were resistant to Ceftriaxone and Amikacin, while 77% of K. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to Chloramphenicol.
Conclusion: High rates of antibiotic resistance were observed to clinically used antibiotics among the isolated bacteria; suggesting that chicken rearing may serve as the reservoir of antibacterial resistant bacteria transmissible to human through the food chain.
2. Havenstein GB, Ferket PR, Qureshi MA. Carcass composition and yield of 1957 versus 2001 broilers when fed representative 1957 and 2001 broiler diets. Poult Sci 2003;82:1509-18.
3. Panisello PJ, Rooney R, Quantick PC, Stanwell-Smith R. Application of food borne disease outbreak data in the development and maintenance of HACCP systems. Int J Food Microbiol 2000;59:221â€“34.
4. Ukut IO, Okonko IO, Ikpoh IS, Nkang AO, Babalola TA. Assessment of bacteriological quality of fresh meats sold in Calabar metropolis. Food Chem 2010;9:89-100.
5. Omulo S, Thumbi SM, Njenga MK, Call DR. A review of 40 years of enteric antimicrobial resistance research in Eastern Africa: what can be done better? Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control 2015;4:1.
6. Khachatourians GG. Agricultural use of antibiotics and the evolution and transfer of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Can Med Assoc J 1998;159:1129-36.
7. Austin DJ, Kakehashi M, Anderson RM. The transmission dynamics of antibioticâ€“resistant bacteria: the relationship between resistance in commensal organisms and antibiotic consumption. Proc R Soc London Ser B 1997;1388:1629-38.
8. Costa D, Poeta P, SÃ¡enz Y, VinuÃ© L, Rojo-Bezares B, et al. Detection of Escherichia coli harbouring extended-spectrum beta-lactamases of the CTX-M, TEM and SHV classes in faecal samples of wild animals in portugal. J Antimicrobial Chemother 2006;58:1311-2.
9. Literak I, Dolejska M, Janoszowska D, Hrusakova J, Meissner W, Rzyska H, et al. Antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli bacteria, including strains with genes encoding the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and QnrS, in waterbirds on the Baltic sea coast of Poland. Appl Environ Microbiol 2010;76:8126â€“34.
10. Miranda JM, MondraÃ³n AC, Martinez B, Guarddon M, Rodriguez JA. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella from different raw foods in Mexico. J Food Prot 2009;72:966.
11. Moussa IM, Gassem MA, Al-A A Doss, Sadik WM, Mawgood A. A molecular techniques for rapid detection of Salmonella serovars in frozen chicken and chicken products collected from Riyadh. Biotechnol 2010;9:612-9.
12. Adetunji VO, Isola TO. Antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli, Listeria and Salmonella from retail meat tables in Ibadan municipal abattoir. Biotechnol 2011;10:5795-9.
13. Sakaridis I, Soultos N, Iossifidou E, Koidis P, Ambrosiadis I. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serovars from chicken carcasses in northern Greece. Ewing 5th edition. Poultry Nutrition; 2011. p. 1963-284.
14. Hao H, Cheng G, Iqbal Z, Ai X, Hussain HI, Huang L, et al. Benefits and risks of antimicrobial use in food-producing animals. Antimicrobial Res Chemother 2014;5:288.
15. Garcia-Migura L, Hendriksen RS, Fraile L, Aarestrup FM. Antimicrobial resistance of zoonotic and commensal bacteria in Europe: the missing link between consumption and resistance in veterinary medicine. Vet Microbiol 2014;170:1-9.
16. Cheesbrough M. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. Part 2. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press: The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge, CB2 8RU; 2006.
17. CLSI-Clinical Laboratories Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Sixteenth Informational Supplement. Wayne, PA: CLSI; 2006.
18. Akinjogunla OJ, Enabuelele OI. Virulence factors, plasmid profiling and curing analysis of multidrug resistant Staphylcococus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. isolated from patients with acute otitis media. J Am Sci 2010;6:1022-33.
19. Osundiya OO, Oladele RO, Oduyebo OO. Multiple antibiotic resistance indices of Pseudomonas and Klebsiella species isolates in Lagos University teaching hospital. Afr J Clin Exp Microbiol 2013;14:164-8.
20. Mthembu MS. The usefulness of multiple antibiotic resistance indexing technique in differentiating faecal coliform bacteria from different sources. Thesis (Msc) University of Zululand; 2008.
21. Shallcross LJ, Davies D SC. Antibiotic overuse: a key driver of antimicrobial resistance. Br J General Practice 2014;64:604-5.
22. Howard SJ, Hopwood S, Davies SC. Antimicrobial resistance: a global challenge. Sci Transl Med 2014;6:236ed10.
23. Adeyanju GT, Ishola O. Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination of poultry meat from a processing plant and retail markets in Ibadan (Nigeria). SpringerPlus 2014;3:139.
24. Rossolini GM, Arena F, Pollini S. Novel infectious diseases and emerging gram-positive multi-resistant pathogens in hospital and community acquired infections. In: Antimicrobials. Springer Berlin Heidelberg; 2014. p. 11-28.
25. Cardoso T, Almeida M, Friedman ND, AragÃ£o I, Costa-Pereira A, Sarmento AE, et al. Classification of healthcare-associated infection: a systematic review 10 years after the first proposal. BMC Med 2014;12:40.
26. Miranda JM, VÃ¡zquez BI, Fente CA, VelÃ¡zquez JB, Franco CM. Evolution of resistance in poultry intestinal Escherichia coli during three commonly used antimicrobial therapeutic treatments in poultry. Poultry Sci 2008;87:1643-8.
27. Graham JP, Evans SL, Price LB, Silbergeld EK. Fate of antimicrobial-resistant enterococci and staphylococci and resistance determinants in stored poultry litter. Environ Res 2009;109:682-9.
28. Ajayi AO, Egbebi AO. Antibiotic sucseptibility of salmonella typhi and klebsiella pneumoniae from Poultry and local birds in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti-State, Nigeria. Ann Biol Res 2011;2:431-7.
29. Thong KL, Modarressi S. Antimicrobial resistant genes associated with Salmonella from retail meats and street foods. Food Res Int 2013;44:2641-26.
30. Ezekiel CN, Olarinmoye AO, Oyinloye JA, Olaoye OB, Edun AO. Distribution, antibiogram and multidrug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae from commercial poultry feeds in Nigeria. Afr J Microbiol Res 2011;5:294-301.
31. Wouafo M, Nzouakeu A, Kinfack JA, Fonkoua FC, Ejenguele G, Ninje G, et al. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serotypes in chickens from retail markets in Yaounde (Cameroon). Microb Drug Resist 2010;16:171-6.