THE EFFECT OF TIME INFLUENCE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS FOLLOWING KETAMINE AND DIAZEPAM ADMINISTERATION IN CATS
Objective: The present study aims to determine the effect of time influence on rectal temperature, respiratory and pulse rate, onset and duration of action, duration of recumbency and recovery following ketamine and diazepam administration in cats.
Methods: Experimental study design was used on 20 cats (males and females) randomly divided into two equal groups (A and B). Ketamine (10 mg/kg i. m.) was administered to group A in the morning. The same procedure was repeated using different dosages (15 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg i.m.) at intervals of 3 days each. A similar procedure was applied to group B in the evening. A week after, diazepam (1.5 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg and 3.5 mg/kg i. v.) were administered to group A and B using the same procedure used in ketamine administration. All baseline measurements were recorded after each drug administration and were repeated at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 min intervals after induction of anesthesia with ketamine and diazepam.
Results: It was found that the onset of action of ketamine following i. m. administration was slightly longer at evening (2-5 mins) while that of diazepam was instant after i. v. administration. The duration of recumbency was shorter in the morning using ketamine while longer following diazepam (7-19 mins) administration. The rectal temperature, respiratory and pulse rate were lower in the morning following ketamine and diazepam administration even though, the respiratory and pulse rate decreases as the dose was increased but not statistically significant. The duration of action and recovery was significantly longer in the morning after ketamine and diazepam administration.
Conclusion: According to this study, there was not much difference between morning and evening administration using both drugs. However, it should be noted that influence of time of administration was evident in some of the parameters measured especially with diazepam.
2. Miller RD, Ericksson LI, Fleisher LA, Wiener-kronish JP, Young WL. Anesthesia E-Book: 2-Volume Set: opioids, Elsevier Health Sciences; 2009.
3. Aliyu YO. Nigerian Veterinary Formulary, Handbook of Essential Veterinary Drugs, Biologics, and Pesticide Chemicals. 1st ed. Nigeria: Veterinary Council of Nigeria; 2007.
4. Betarbet R, Greenamyre JT. Regulation of dopamine receptor and neuropeptide expression in the basal ganglia of monkeys treated with MPTP. Exp Neurol 2004;189:393-403.
5. Delezie J. R+Â¦le du r+Â¬cepteur nucl+Â¬aire Rev-erba dans les m+Â¬canismes d'anticipation des repas et le m+Â¬tabolisme; 2012.
6. Akkerdaas LC, Minch P, Sap P, Hellebrekers LJ. Anesthesiology: cardiopulmonary effects of three different anesthesia protocols in cats. Vet Q 2001;23:182-6.
7. Lin EP, Spaeth JP, Cooper DS. Sedative Hypnotics and Anesthetic Agents. Handbook of Pediatric Cardiovascular Drugs. Springer; 2014.
8. Lubin MF, Dodson TF, Winawer NH. Medical management of the surgical patient: a textbook of perioperative medicine. Cambridge University Press; 2013.
9. Hedenqvist P, Hellebrekers LJ. Laboratory animal analgesia, anesthesia, and euthanasia. Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science. Vol. 1. Essential Principles and Practices; 2003.
10. Carroll ME. Interactions between food and addiction. Drugs of Abuse and Addiction. Neurobehavioral Toxicology; 1998.
11. Maxwell LG, Tobias JD, Cravero JP, Malviya S. Adverse effects of sedatives in children. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2003;2:167-94.
12. Kerr CL, McDonell WN, Young SS. A comparison of romifidine and xylazine when used with diazepam/ketamine for short duration anesthesia in the horse. Can Vet J 1996;37:601.
13. Short CE. Principles and Practice of Veterinary Anesthesia. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore; 1987.
14. Onifade KI. Cycles of life and drug effects-An update Faculty seminar presentation. Nigeria: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine; 2009.
15. Viyoch J, Ohdo S, Yukawa E, Higuchi S. Dosing time-dependent tolerance of catalepsy by repetitive administration of haloperidol in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2001;298:964-9.
16. Shafford HL. Anesthetic Considerations for Feline Patients; 2012.
17. Flecknell PA. Anesthesia and preoperative care. British Small Animal Veterinary Association (BSAVA) manual of rabbit medicine and surgery. 2nd edition. (A. Meredith and P. Flecknell, eds). BSAVA, Gloucester; 2006.
18. Jamilu I. Influence of time of administration on the sedative of ketamine and diazepam effects in rabbits. Nigeria: Unpublished thesis; 2010.
19. Fowler ME. Restraint and handling of wild and domestic animals. State Univ. Press: AmES; 1978.
20. Evans JM, Aspinall KW, Hendy PG. Clinical evaluation in cats of a new anesthetic, CT 1341. J Small Anim Pract 1972;13:479-86.
21. Stegmann GF, Bester L. Sedative and hypnotic effects of midazolam in goats after intravenous and intramuscular administration. Vet Anaesth Analg 2001;28:49-55.
22. Hall LW, Clark KW, Trim CM. Veterinary anesthesia. 10th ed. London: WB Saunder's Co; 2001.
23. Chris C Pinney. The Illustrated Veterinary guide for dogs, cats, birds and exotic pets. 1st. edition. Zip publisher; 1992.
24. Reynolds BS1, GeffrÃ© A, BourgÃ¨s-Abella NH, Vaucoret S, Mourot M, Braun JP, et al. Effects of intravenous, low-dose ketamine-diazepam sedation on the results of hematologic, plasma biochemical, and coagulation analyses in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;240:287-93.
25. Lysa PP, Robin DG, Hollis NE, John WL. Post-anesthetic hyperthermia in cats. Veterinary Anesthesia Analgesia 2007;34:40-7.
26. Grant C, Upton RN. Cardiovascular and hemodynamic effects of intramuscular doses of xylazine in conscious sheep. Aust Vet J 2001;79:58-60.