INVESTIGATION OF CHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM TWO SYZYGIUM SPECIES OF ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA
Objective: The present investigation is carried out to study the chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of essential oils of two Syzygium species i.e. Syzygium alternifolium (SA) and S. samarangense (SS) leaves.
Methods: The essential oils from S. alternifolium (SA) and S. samarangense (SS) leaves were obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oils were subjected to antimicrobial and antioxidant activities by using in vitro methods.
Results: Essential oils (EOs) obtained by hydro distillation were analyzed through GC and GC-MS and resulted 25 compounds from each sample. SA leaf oil was dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons (53.53%) of which, Î²-mercene (24.04%), Î²-pinene (9.23%), Î²-trans-ocimene (9.2%), cyclofenchene (7.21%) and Î²-cis-ocimene (2.1%). Whereas SS leaf oil was dominated by sesquiterpene components i.e. viridiflorol (15.05%) Î±-cubebene (7.71%) and monoterpenes, i.e. Î²-pinene (11.64%), Î±-pinene (9.61%) and Î±-terpineol (5.19%). Both essential oils exhibited strong and broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial results showed that SA-leaf oil strongly inhibited Candida rugosa (CR), Bacillus subtilis (BS) and Staphyloccus aureus (ST), whereas SS-leaf oil strongly inhibited CR and Escherichia coli (EC). Among the test organisms, CR was strongly inhibited by both oils by expression of the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). Further, both the test EOs exhibited concentration dependent DPPH scavenging activity indicating the significant antioxidant property.
Conclusion: Syzygium alternifolium and S. samarangense leaf essential oils are the good source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds, which can be used as natural therapeutic agents against human pathogenic organisms.
2. Rastogi RP, Mehrotra BN. Compendium of Indian medicinal plants, CDRI publication, Central Dug Research Institute, Lucknow; 1990.
3. Iwe MW, Duncon, AR, Okunji CO. New antimicrobials of plant origin. In: Janick J. Ed. Prospectives on New crops and new uses. ASHS Press: Alexandria VA; 1999. p. 457-62.
4. Anand A, Srinivasa Rao C, Balakrishna P. In vitro propagation of Syzygium travancoricum Gamble an endangered tree species. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 1999;56:59-63.
5. Elliot R, Jones D. Encyclopaedia of australian plants suitable for cultivation. Port Melbourne: Lothian Press; 2010.
6. Gayathri A, Benish Rose PM, Saranya J, Eganathan P, Sujanapal P, Ajay Kumar P. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer activities of Syzygium caryophyllatum (L.) Alston. Int J Green Pharm 2012;6:285â€“8.
7. Bhakshu LM. Ethnomedicobotanical and phytochemical evaluation of certain rare, endangered and endemic medicinal plants from eastern ghats of andhra pradesh, India. Ph. D. Thesis. Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur, India; 2002.
8. Ratnam KV, Raju RRV. In vitro antimicrobial screening of the fruit extracts of two Syzygium Species (Myrtaceae). Adv Biol Res 2008;2:17-20.
9. Rao BK, Rao CH. Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity of Syzygium alternifolium (Wt.) Walp. seed extracts in normal and diabetic rats. Phytomed 2001;8:88-93.
10. Raju VSSA, Ramesh M, Narsau ML, Kumar MM. Antimicrobial activity of the plant Syzygium alternifolium. India Asian J Chem 2007;19:4923-24.
11. Rani J, Nagarauk R, Anuradha P. Antimicrobial properties of Indian medicinal plants: Syzygium alternifolium, Phyllanthus niruri and Rubia cordifolia. Biomed Phamcol J 2010;3:123-8.
12. Ratnam KV, Bhakshu LM, Padma Y, Raju VRR. Studies on antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of leaf extracts of Syzygium alternifolium (Wt.) Walp. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:139-43.
13. Reddy NP, Narahari Reddy RV, Gunasekhar D. Chemical constituents of Syzygium alternifolium (Wt.) Walp. In proceedings of UGC-National seminar on Role of Chemistry in Drug Development Strategies; 2005. p. 13-4.
14. Tina P, Padmavathi D, Jasmin SR, Sarala A. Syzygium samarangense: a review on morphology, Phytochemistry, Pharmacological Aspects. Asian J Biochem Pharm Res 2011;4:155â€“63.
15. Sulaiman SF, Kheng Leong Ooi KL. Antioxidant and Î±â€‘Glucosidase inhibitory activities of 40 tropical juices from malaysia and identification of phenolics from the bioactive fruit juices of Barringtonia racemosa and Phyllanthus acidus. J Agric Food Chem 2014;62:9576âˆ’85.
16. Shen SC, Chang WC, Chang CL. Fraction from wax apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry] fruit extract ameliorates insulin resistance via modulating insulin signaling and inflammation pathway in tumor necrosis factor Î±-Treated FL83B mouse hepatocytes. Int J Mol Sci 2012;13:8562-77.
17. Shen SC, Chang WC, Chang CL. An extract from wax apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry] Effects glycogenesis and glycolysis pathways in tumor necrosis factor-Î±-treated FL83B mouse hepatocytes. Nutrients 2013;5:455-67.
18. Kim YJ, Kim HC, Ko H, Amor CE, Lee WJ, Yang OH. Inhibitory effects of aurentiacin from Syzygium samarangense on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in mouse macrophages. Food Chem Toxic 2012;50:1027â€“35.
19. Mollika S, Islam N, Parvin N, Kabir A, Sayem W. Luthfunnesa Md, et al. Evaluation of Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory and CNS Activities of the Methanolic Extract of Syzygium samarangense Leave. Global J Pharm 2014;8:39-46.
20. Reseurreccion-Magno MH, Villasenor IM, Harada N, Monde K. Anti-hyperglycaemic flavonoids from Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. Perry Phytother Res 2005;19:246-51.
21. Amor EC, Villasenor IM, Ghayur MN, Gilani AH, Choudhary MI. Spasmolytic flavonoids from Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & LM Perry. Z Naturforsch C 2005;60:67-71.
22. Kuo YC, Yang LM, Lin LC. Isolation and immunomodulatory effect of flavonoids from Syzygium samarangense. Planta Med 2004;70:1237-9.
23. Amor CE, Villasenora IM, Yasinb A, Iqbal CM. Prolyl Endopeptidase Inhibitors from Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. L M Perry. Z Naturforsch 2004;59c:86â€“92.
24. Nair AGR, Krishnan S, Ravikrishna C, Madhusudanan KP. New and rare flavonol glycolsides from leaves of Syzygium samarangense. Fitoterapia 1999;70:148-51.
25. Srivastava R, Shaw AK, Kulshreshtha K. Triterpenoids and chalcone from Syzygium samarangense. Phytochem 1995;38:687-9.
26. Nonaka G, Aiko Y, Aritake K, Nishioka I. Tannins and related compounds. CXIX. Samarangenins A and B, novel proanthocyanidins with doubly bonded structures, from Syzygium samarangense and S. aqueum. Chem Pharm Bull 1992;40:2671â€“73.
27. Joji Reddy L, Beena J. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the volatile oil from the leaf of Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. L M Perry. Asian J Biochem Pharm Res 2011;3:263â€“9.
28. Gao Y, Qiuping Hu, Li X. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil from Syzygium samarangense(BL.) Merr. et Perry flower-bud. Spatula DD 2012;2:23â€“33.
29. Clevenger JF. Apparatus for the determination of essential oil. J Am Pharm Assoc 1928;17:345-9.
30. Reddy LPA, Reddy BN, Bhakshu MDL, Ratnam KV, Reddy LV. Chemical composition, Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from leaves and fruits of Commiphora caudata Engl. Int J Res Phytochem Pharmacol 2015;7:38-44.
31. Kovats E. Gas chromatographic characterization of organic substances in the retention index system. Adv Chromatogr 1965;1:229â€“47.
32. Jennings W, Shibamoto T. Qualitative analysis of flavor and fragrance volatiles by glass capillary gas chromatography. Academic Press: New York; 1980.
33. Adams RP. Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy. Allured Publishing Corp. Carol Stream, IL; 2001.
34. Prasanna ARL, Reddy BN, Ratnam KV, Bhakshu MD L, Reddy LV. Chemical profile, Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Boswellia ovalifoliolata Bal. et Henry. Int J Pharm Clin Res 2015;7:96-101.
35. Nuzhat T, Vidyasagar GM. Antifungal investigations on plant essential oils. A review. Int J Pharm Sci 2013;5:19â€“28.
36. Sara Burt. Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods-a review. Int J Food Microb 2004;94:223â€“53.
37. Hamid AA, Aiyelaagbe OO, Usman LA, Ameen OM, Lawal A. Antioxidants: Its medicinal and pharmacological applications. Afr J Pure Appl Chem 2010;4:142-51.
38. Pham-Huy LA, He H, Pham-Huy C. Free radicals, Antioxidants in disease and health. Int J Biomed Sci 2008;4:89-96.
39. Tzakou O, Pitarokili D, Chinou IB, Harvala C. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Salvia ringens. Planta Med 2001;67:81-3.
40. Filipowicz N, KamiÅˆski M, Kurlenda J, Asztemborska M. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Juniper berry oil and its selected components. Phytother Res 2003;17:227-31.
41. Andrews RE, Parks LW, Spence KD. Some effects of douglas fir terpenes on certain microorganisms. Appl Environ Microbiol 1980;40:301-4.
42. Uribe S, Ramirez T, Pena A. Effects of Î²-pinene on yeast membrane functions. J Bacteriol 1985;161:1195â€“200.
43. Maria Jose A, Maria A, Paulina B. Active antifungal substances from natural sources. ARKIVOC 2007;7:116-45.
44. Fabiola FG, Rodrigues J, Costa GM, Henrique DMC. Enhancement of the antibiotic activity of gentamicin by volatile compounds of Zanthoxylum articulatum. Indian J Med Res 2010;131:833-5.
45. Ulubelen A, Topcu G, Eris C, Sonmez U, Kartal M, Kurucu S, et al. Terpenoids from Salvia sclarea. Phytochem 1994;36:971-4.
46. Yang D, Michel L, Chaumont JP, Millet-Clerc J. Use of caryophyllene oxide as an antifungal agent in an in vitro experimental model of onychomycosis. Mycopathologia 1999;148:79-82.
47. Lin WY, Kuo YH, Chang YL, Teng CM, Wang EC, Ishikawa T, et al. Anti-platelet aggregation and chemical constituents from the rhizome of Gynura japonica. Planta Med 2003;69:757â€“64.
48. Kubo I, Chaudhuri S, Kubo Y, Sanchez Y, Ogura T, Saito T, et al. Cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of squiterpenoids from Heterotheca inuloides. Planta Med 1996;62:427-30.
49. Barel S, Segal R, Yashphe J. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Achillea fragrantissima. J Ethnopharm 1991;33:187â€“91.
50. Knobloch K, Pauli A, Iberl B, Weigand H, Weis N. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oil components. J Essent Oil Res 1989;1:119â€“28.
51. Peana AT, Aquila PS, Chessa ML, Moretti MD, Serra G, Pippia P. (-)-Linalool produces antinociception in two experimental models of pain. Eur J Pharm 2003;460:37â€“41.
52. Chiang LC, Chiang W, Chang MY, Ng LT, Lin CC. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in taiwan. Am J Chin Med 2003;31:37â€“46.
53. Lis-Balchin M, Hart S. Studies on the mode of action of the essential oil of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia P. Miller). Phytothe Res 1999;13:540-2.
54. Letizia CS, Cocchiara J, Lalko J, Api AM. Fragrance material review on linalool. Food Chem Toxicol 2003;41:943â€“64.
55. Yanishlieva NV, Marinova EM, Gordon MH, Raneva VG. Antioxidant activity and mechanism of action of thymol and carvacrol in two lipid systems. Food Chem 1999;64:59-66.
56. Mario CF, Ingold KU. Mechanism of inhibition of lipid peroxidation by Î³-terpinene, an unusual and potentially useful hydrocarbon antioxidant. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:2758âˆ’65.
57. Bektas T, Arzuhan ST, Dimitra D, Moschos P, Atalay S. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oil of Clinopodium vulgare L. Food Chem 2007;103:766â€“70.