ANTI-ANEMIC ACTIVITY OF SPROUTS OF VIGNA RADIATA L. IN MALE ALBINO RATS
Keywords:Anemia, Phenyl hydrazine, Vigna radiata L, Bioferon
Objective: To evaluate the anti-anemic activity of sprouts of Vigna radiata L. against phenyl hydrazine induced anemic rats.
Methods: Rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 each. Group 1 was given normal saline and served as control and all other groups were given 40 mg/kg b. w of phenyl hydrazine for 2 d to induce anemia. Group 3 was treated with Bioferon (230 mg/kg) and served as the standard. Group 4 was treated with sprouted Vigna radiata L. (600 mg/kg bw). All the treatments were given orally. On completion of the experimental period, all the test substance/vehicle-treated rats were sacrificed and the plasma separated was used for estimating various biochemical as well as hematological parameters as per standard procedures.
Results: The experimental rats treated with sprouted Vigna radiata L. at the dose level 600 mg/kg bw for 13 d revealed significant changes in biochemical and hematological parameters compared to phenyl hydrazine induced anemic rats.
Conclusion: The present study concluded that the sprouted Vigna radiata L. inhibits anemia induced by phenyl hydrazine in male albino rats.
Penninx BW, Guralnik JM, Onder G, Ferrucci L, Wallace RB, Pahor M. Anemia and decline in physical performance among older persons. Am J Med 2003;11:104â€“10.
Baker SJ, DeMaeyer EM. Nutritional anemia: its understanding and control with special reference to the work of the world health organization. Am J Clin Nutr 1979;3:368-417.
Tulchisky TH, Varavikova. New Public Health. 2ndedn. Elsevier Academic press: London. UK; 2009. p. 193-6.
Herifinda ET, Gourley DR. Textbook of therapeutics, drug and disease management. 6thedn. William and Wilkins, Baltimore, USA; 1996. p. 198-226.
Ravi U Thaker, Bhavin A Vyas, Shrikant V Joshi, Paras K Patel, Dinesh R Shah. Effect of dehydrated water extract of fruits of Opuntia ficus indica on experimentally induced hemolytic anemia in rats. Int J Pharm Res Dev 2012;4:185-91.
Min L. Research advance in chemical composition and pharmacological action of mung bean. Shanghai J Trad Chin Med 2001;5:18.
Fery RL. The cowpea: production, utilization, and research in the United States. Hortic Rev 1990;12:197â€“222.
Soobratte MA, Neergheen VS, Luximon-Ramma A. Phenolic as potential antioxidant therapeutic agents: mechanism and actions. Mutat Res 2005;579:200-13.
Nair RM, Yang RY, Easdown WJ, Thavarajah D, Thavarajah P, Hughes Jd, et al. Biofortification of mungbean (Vigna radiata) as a whole food to enhance human health. J Sci Food Agric 2013;8:1805-13.
Yang RY, Tsou SCS. Mungbean as a potential iron source in south Asian diets. In 35 International consultation workshop on mungbean. AVRDC: Shanhua; 1998. p. 152-8.
Wongekalak LSP, Jirasripongpun K, Hongsprabhas P. Potential use of antioxidativemungbean protein hydrolysate as an anti-cancer asiatic acid carrier. Food Res Int 2011;44:812â€“7.
Lai F, Wen Q, Li L, Wu H, Li X. Antioxidant activities of water-soluble polysaccharide extracted from mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) hull with ultrasonic assisted treatment. Carbohydr Polym 2010;81:323â€“9.
Lee JH, Jeon JK, Kim SG, Kim SH, Chun T, Imm JY. Comparative analyses of total phenols, flavonoids, saponins and antioxidant activity in yellow soy beans and mung beans. Int J Food Sci Tech 2011;46:2513-9.
Kim JH, Lee BC, Kim JH, Sim GS, Lee DH, Lee KE, et al. The isolation and antioxidative effects of vitexin from acerpalmatum. Arch Pharm Res 2005;28:195â€“202.
Wang S, Rao P, Ye X. Isolation and biochemical characterization of a novel leguminous defense peptide with antifungal and antiproliferative potency. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2009;82:79â€“86.
Wang S, Shao B, Fu H, Rao P. Isolation of a thermostable legume chitinase and study on the antifungal activity. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2009;85:313â€“21.
Wang PF, Ye SY, Rao XY. Research progress on the biological activities and functions of mung beans. J Chin Inst Food Sci Technol 2004;1:26.
Ye XY, Ng TB. Mungin, a novel cyclophilin-like antifungal protein from the mung bean. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2000;273:1111â€“5.
Wang S, Wu J, Rao P, Ng TB, Ye X. A chitinase with antifungal activity from the mung bean. Protein Expression Purif 2005;40:230â€“6.
Lee SJ, Lee JH, Lee HH, Lee S, Kim SH, Chun T, et al. Effect of mung bean ethanol extract on pro-inflammtory cytokines in LPS stimulated macrophages. Food Sci Biotechnol 2011;20:519â€“24.
Yeap SK, AliN M, Yusof HM, Noorjahan BA, Boon KB, Wan YH, et al. Antihyperglycemic effects of fermented and nonfermentedmung bean extracts on alloxan-induced-diabetic mice. BioMed Res Int 2012;1â€“7. doi.org/10.1155/2012/ 285430. [Article in Press]
Bellik Y, Hammoudi S, Abdellah F, Iguer-Ouada M, Boukraa L. Phytochemicals to prevent inflammation and allergy. Recent Pat Inflammation Allergy Drug Discovery 2012;6:147â€“58.
Cherng JM, Chiang W, Chiang LC. Immunomodulatory activities of edible beans and related constituents from soybean. Food Chem 2007;104:613â€“8.
Yao Y, Chen F, Wang M, Wang J, Ren G. Antidiabetic activity of mung bean extracts in diabetic KK-Ay mice. J Agric Food Chem 2008;56:8869â€“73.
Randhir R, Shetty K. Mung beans processed by solid-state bioconversion improves phenolic content and functionality relevant for diabetes and ulcer management. Innovative Food Sci Emerging Technol 2007;8:197â€“204.
Hsu GSW, Lu YF, Chang SH, Hsu SY. Antihypertensive effect of mung bean sprout extracts in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Food Biochem 2011;35:278â€“88.
Matousek J, Podzimek T, Pouckova P, Stehlik J, Skvor J, Soucek J, et al. Antitumor effects and cytotoxicity of recombinant plant nucleases. Oncol Res 2009;18:163â€“71.
Xu B, Chang SK. Comparative study on antiproliferation properties and cellular antioxidant activities of commonly consumed food legumes against nine human cancer cells. Food Chem 2012;134:1287â€“96.
Zhao YR, Li ZW, Zhao C, Fu R, Wang XH, Li ZY. Effects of recombinant mung bean trypsin inhibitor fragments on migration of colon cancer cell SW480. J Shanxi Univ Nat Sci 2012;1:29.
Zhu S, Li W, Li JH, Arvin J, Andrew ES, Wang HC. It is not just folklore: the aqueous extract of mung bean coat is protective against sepsis. J Evidence-Based Complementary Altern Med 2012:1â€“10. doi.org/10.1155/2012/498467. [Article in Press]
Lee CH, Yoon SJ, Lee SM. Chlorogenic acid attenuates high mobility group Box 1 (HMGB1) and enhances host defense mechanisms in murine sepsis. Mol Med 2012;18:1437â€“48.
Kushwah A, Rajawat P, Kushwah HS. Nutritional evaluation of extruded Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) as a protein supplement in cereals based diet in rats. J Exp Biol 2002;40:49â€“52.
El-Adawy T, Rahma E, El-Bedawey A, El-Beltagy A. Nutritional potential and functional properties of germinated mung bean, pea and lentil seeds. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2003;58:1â€“13.
Golob P. The use of spices and medicinals as bioactive protectants for grains. Rome: FAO Agricultural Sciences Bulletin; 1999. p. 137.
Diallo A, Gbeassor M, Ahoefa Vovor B, Kwashie Eklu-Gadegbeku A, Kodjo Aklikokou A, Amegnona Agbonon A, et al. Effect of Tectona grandis on phenylhydrazine-induced anemia in rats. Fitoterapia 2008;79:332-6.
Dacie JV, Lewis SM. Practical Hematology. 4th edition. Churchhill, UK; 1968. p. 37.
OcheiJ, Kolhatkar A. Medical laboratory science theory and practice. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi; 2000. p. 281-7.
Beuge JA, Aust SD. The Thiobarbituric acid assay. Methods in enzymology 1978;52:306-7.
Moron MS, Dsepierre JW, Manerwik KB. Levels of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase activities in rat lung and liver. Biophysica Acta 1979;582:67-8.
Reitman S, Frankel SA. Colorimetric method for the determination of serum Glutamic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminase. Am J Clin Pathol 1957;25:56-63.
Harvey J, Paige SM. The In stat guide to choosing and interpreting statistical tests: a manual for graph pad Instat San Diego, CA USA; 1998.
AkyÃ¼z M. Nutritive value, flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity of the truffle. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 2013;13:143-51.
Gannet PM, Lawson TS, Kolar C, Toth B. Aryl radical formation during the metabolism of aryl hydrazine by microsomes. Chem Res Toxicol 1997;10:1372-7.
Prasad AS. Zinc and trace minerals. Workshop on nutrient metabolism in genetic anemia, Bethesoda, USA, NHLBI; 1999.
Ferrali M, Signorini C, Pompella A, Lodovic M, Caciotti B, Ciccoli L, et al. Release of free redox-active iron in the liver and DNA oxidative damage following phenyl hydrazine intoxication. Biochem Pharmacol 1997;53:1743-51.
Criswell KA, Sulkanen AP, Hochbaum AF, Bleavins MR. Effects of phenylhydrazine or phlebotomy on peripheral blood, bone marrow and Erythropoietin in Wistar rats. J Appl Toxicol 2000;20:25-34.
Andre Muller, Helene Jacobsen, Edel Healy, Sinead McMickan, FrÃ©deriqueIstace, Marie-NoÃ«lle Blaude, et al. Hazard classification of chemicals inducing hemolytic anemia: an EU regulatory perspective. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2006;45:229-41.
Shukla S, Mehta A, John J, Singh S, Mehta P, Vyas S. Clinical manifestations of human parvovirus B19 in adults. Arch Int Med 2012;149:11532-6.
Tyurina YY, Shvedova AA, Kanai K, Tyurin VA, Kommineni C, Quinn PJ, et al. Phospholipid signaling in apoptosis. Peroxidation and externalization of Phosphatidylserine. Toxicology 2000;148:93â€“101.
Hochstein P. Perspectives on hydrogen peroxide and drug-induced hemolytic anemia in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Free Radical Biol Med 1988;5:387â€“92.
McMillan DC, Powell CL, Bowman ZS, Morrow JD, Jollow DJ. Lipids versus proteins as major targets of per-oxidant, direct-acting hemolytic agents. Toxicol Sci 2005;88:274-83.
Haram K, Nilsen ST, Ulvik RJ. Iron supplementation in pregnancy--evidence and controversies. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2001;80:683-8.
Vyshtakaliuk AB, Zobov VV. Antianemic activity of water-soluble Na, Ca, Fe-polygalacturonate. Bull Exp Biol Med 2010;150:45-7.
Mittal MB, Abhay RS, Yadunath MJ, Vilasrao JK. An intervention on iron deficiency anemia and change in dietary behavior among adolescent girls. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011;3:40-2.
Balaji K, Brindha P, Sridharan K, Uma Maheshwari K, Swaminathan S, Rajan KS. Elucidation of a core-shell model for Lauhabhasma through physico-chemical characterization. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4:644-9.