• Mosad A Ghareeb Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza, Egypt
  • Laila A Refahy Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza, Egypt
  • Amal M Saad Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza, Egypt
  • Maha A El-shazely Theodor Bilharz Research Institute
  • Asmaa S Mohamed Theodor Bilharz Research Institute
  • Nadia S Osman Theodor Bilharz Research Institute


Objective: Brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.) bioassay is considered as a preliminary screening for the presence of antitumor compounds and used to determine the toxicity of plant extracts. Different extracts of three Egyptian plants, philodendron selloum (Araceae), Bougainvillea alba (Nyctaginaceae) and Ulmus parvifolia (Ulmaceae) were screened for their preliminary cytotoxicity.

Methods: The dry powdered leaves of the three plants under investigation (500 g from each plant) were extracted with 85% methanol; then undergo successive fractionation via petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT) was carried out via taking 50 mg of Artemia salina Leach eggs in a hatching chamber and serial concentrations from each extract were used.

Results: The chloroform extract of Philodendron selloum showed the most potent cytotoxic activity at sub-lethal concentration (LC50=16 µg/ml) followed by its methanol extract (LC50=26 µg/ml). The methanol, chloroform and petroleum ether extracts of Bougainvillea alba plant showed the same cytotoxic effect at LC50= 40 µg/ml. Ulmus parvifolia showed the least cytotoxic effect at LC50 =380 & 300 µg/ml for methanol and ethyl acetate extracts respectively.

Conclusion: It may be concluded that the tested plants possess strong cytotoxic activies; also this work suggests that plants extracts could possibly be used locally as naturally occurring cytotoxic agents.

Keywords: Brine Shrimp, Artemia salina, Philodendron selloum, Bougainvillea alba, Ulmus parvifolia, cytotoxicity


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Author Biography

Mosad A Ghareeb, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza, Egypt
Medicinal Chemistry Department, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI)


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How to Cite
Ghareeb, M. A., L. A. Refahy, A. M. Saad, M. A. El-shazely, A. S. Mohamed, and N. S. Osman. “CYTOTOXIC SCREENING OF THREE EGYPTIAN PLANTS USING BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY TEST”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 7, no. 9, July 2015, pp. 507-9,
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