ANTI-QUORUM SENSING ACTIVITY OF SOME COMMONLY USED TRADITIONAL INDIAN SPICES
Objective: To investigate the total phenolic and flavonoids contents and study the anti-quorum sensing activity of Indian spices.
Methods: The methanolic extracts of eight Indian spices were evaluated for phytochemicals and QSI (quorum sensing inhibition). QSI was determined by qualitative and quantitative violacein inhibition using Chromobacterium violaceum12472 as a reporter strain. Biofilm and inhibition of virulence factors viz. EPS (exo poly saccharide production), pyocyanin, proteolytic and swimming motility were assessed against clinically isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Results: The phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of Indian spices revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, carbohydrates, alkaloids and phenolic compounds. Among all the spices, the total phenol (35Â±0.53 mg/GAE/g DW) and flavonoid (18Â±0.22 mg/QE/g DW) contents were found to be maximum in Sygygium aromaticum. S. aromaticum exhibited highest quorum sensing(57.63Â±04%) and biofilm inhibition (49.36Â±1.5%) at 200 mg/ml. S. aromaticum also showed dose dependent inhibition of virulence factors such as EPS production, pyocyanin, proteolytic and swimming motility against clinically isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ATR-IR (Attenuated total reflectance infrared) analysis of S. aromaticum extract showed phyto constituents with hydroxyl, alkynes, anhydrites, alkene, nitro compounds, aromatics, esters, sulfoxide and halogen functional groups.
Conclusion: The present study promisingly revealed that S. aromaticum has an effective inhibition of biofilm caused by quorum sensing and virulence factors against clinically isolated P. aeruginosa. Biofilm prevents the entry of antibiotics, thereby developing drug resistance. The quorum quenching phyto compounds inhibit the bacterial communication and make them less virulent might be a novel non-antibiotic therapeutic system for pathogenic bacteria. Further research is necessary to identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for the activities.
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