POTENTIAL ROLE OF CARICA PAPAYA AND THEIR ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS IN THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF DISEASES

  • Arshad H Rahmani Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia
  • Yousef H Aldebasi Qassim University

Abstract

Natural products or products from the plant source show pivotal role in the diseases prevention and treatment since ancient. Numerous plants and their ingredients such as Nigella sativa, curcumin, olive and dates fruits have proven health promoting effects. In this vista, Papaya (C. Papaya family Caricaceae) is a medicinal plant that has been extensively used in traditional medicine due to their versatile approach in diseases treatment and prevention. The health-promoting activities of papaya and their constituents are recognized due to antioxidant activity. C. Papaya holds a range of valuable constituents such as vitamin, flavonoids and minerals in the different parts of plants and each constituent shows role in the disease management. Earlier reports have proven that C. papaya fruits and its ingredients shows role in health management via prevention of the pathogenesis of diseases. Its leaf juice also contains significant constituents, and they shows very effective role in the management of dengue fever with platelet increasing property. In this review, we aimed to evaluate the applications of papaya in cancer, diabetes, wound healing, malaria, dengue fever and other various disease prevention and treatment.

 

Keywords: Carica papaya, Antioxidant activity, Anti-inflammatory activity, Health management

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Jaiswal P, Kumar P, Singh VK, Singh DK. Carica papaya linn: a potential source for various health problems. J Pharm Res 2010;3:998–1003.
2. Vij T, Prasha Y. A review on medicinal properties of Carica papaya Linn. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2015;5:1-6.
3. Anuar NS, Zahari SS, Taib IA, Rahman MT. Effect of green and ripe Carica papaya epicarp extract on wound healing and during pregnancy. Food Chem 2008;46:2384-9.
4. Samson JA. Tropical Fruits.” 2nd ed. Longman Scientific and Technical Publication; 1986. p. 256-69.
5. Panzarini E, Dwikat M, Mariano S, Vergallo C, Dini L. Administration dependent antioxidant effect of carica papaya seeds water extract.” J. Evidence-Based Complementary Altern Med 2014. doi: 10.1155/2014/281508. [Epub 2014 Mar 25]
6. Amazu LU, Azikiwe CCA, Njoku CJ, Osuala FN, Nwosu PJC, Ajugwo AO, Enye JC. Antiinflammatory activity of the methanolic extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in experimental animals. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2010;3:884-6.
7. Satrija F, Nansen P, Murtini S, He S. Anthelmintic activity of papaya latex against patent Heligmosomoides polygyrus infections in mice. J Ethnopharm 1995;3:161–4.
8. Ong H, Chua S, Milow P. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the temuan villagers in kampung jeram kedah, negeri sembilan, Malaysia. Ethnomed Plants 2011;5:95–100.
9. Krishna KL, Paridhavi M, Jagruti AP. Review on nutritional, medicinal and pharmacological properties of Papaya (Carica papaya Linn.). Nat Prod Radian 2008;7:364-73.
10. Ayoola PB, Adeyeye A. Phytochemical and nutrient evaluation of Carica papaya (pawpaw) leaves. Int J Res Rev Appl Sci 2010;5:325-8.
11. Canini A, Alesiani G D’Arcangelo, P Tagliatesta. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of phenolic compounds from Carica papaya L. leaf. J Food Compos Anal 2007;20:584–590.
12. Nakasone HY, Paull RE. Tropical Fruits, CAB International, Wallingford, NY, USA; 1998.
13. Bari L, Hassen P, Absar N, Haque ME, Khuda MIIE, Pervin MM, et al. Nutritional analysis of two local varieties of papaya (Carica papaya) at different maturation stages. Pak J Biol Sci 2006;9:137-40.
14. Hernandez Y, Lobo MG, Gonzalez M. Determination of vitamin c in tropical fruits: a comparative evaluation of methods. Food Chem 2006;96:654-64.
15. Schweiggert RM, Steingass CB, Heller A, Esquivel P, Carle R. Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red-and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.). Planta 2011;234:1031–44.
16. Marfo EK, Oke OL, Afolabi OA. Chemical composition of papaya (Carica papaya) seeds. Food Chem 1986;22:259-66.
17. Khor ES, Wong NK. Potential antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of secondary metabolite extracts from carica papaya fruits and seed. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:220-4.
18. Indran M, Mahmood AA, Kuppusamy UR. Protective effect of Carica papaya L leaf extract against alcohol-induced acute gastric damage and blood oxidative stress in rats. West Indian Med J 2008;57:323-6.
19. Rahmani AH, Aly SM. Nigella sativa and its active constituent’s thymoquinone shows pivotal role in the diseases prevention and treatment. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015,8:48-53.
20. Rahmani AH, Albutti AS, Aly SM. Therapeutics role of olive fruits/oil in the prevention of diseases via modulation of anti-oxidant, anti-tumour and genetic activity. Int J Clin Exp Med 2014;7:799–808.
21. Hasimun P, Suwendar, Ernasari GI. Analgetic activity of papaya (Carica papaya L.) Leaves extract. Procedia Chem 2014;13:147–9.
22. Nayak SB, Pinto Pereira L, Maharaj D. Wound healing activity of Carica papaya L. in experimentally induced diabetic rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2007;45:739-43.
23. Tiwari P, Kmar K, Panik R, Pandey A, Pandey A, Sahu PK. Evaluation of aqueous extract of roots of carica papaya on wound healing activity in albino Rats. J Chem Pharm Res 2011;3:291-5.
24. Mahmood AA, Sidik K, Salmah I. Wound healing activity of Carica papaya l. aqueous leaf extract in rats. Int J Mol Med Adv Sci 2005;1:398–401.
25. Doughari JH, El Mahmoud AM. Manzara S. Studies on the antibacterial activity of root extracts of Carica papaya L. Afr J Microbiol Res 2007;037-041. Available from: http://www.academicjournals.org/ajmr. [Last accessed on 05 Aug 2015].
26. Peter JK, Kumar Y, Pandey P, Masih H. Antibacterial activity of seed and leaf extract of carica papaya var. pusa dwarf Linn. J Pharm Biol Sci 2014;9:29-37.
27. Akujobi CN, Ofodeme CN, Enweani CA. Determination of antibacterial activity of Carica papaya (paw-paw) extracts. Nigerian J Clin Practic 2010;13:55–7.
28. Orhue PO, Momoh ARM. Antibacterial activities of different solvent extracts of carica papaya fruit parts on some gram positive and gram negative organisms. Int J Herbs Pharmacol Res 2013;2:42–7.
29. Dawkins G, Hewitt H, Wint Y, Obiefuna PC, Wint B. Antibacterial effects of Carica papaya fruit on common wound organisms. West Indian Med J 2003;52:290-2.
30. Ologundudu A, Lawal AO. The antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Carica papaya fruits on aspirin induced ulcer in rats. Int J Toxicol 2008;5:2.
31. Abisola OT, Wahab OA. Gastroprotective activity of aqueous Carica papaya seed extract on ethanol induced gastric ulcer in male rats. Afr J Biotechnol 2012;11:8612-5.
32. Sadeque MZ, Begum ZA, Umar BU, Ferdous AH, Sultana S, Uddin MK. Comparative efficacy of dried fruits of carica papaya Linn. and Vitamin-E on preventing hepatotoxicity in rats. Faridpur Med College J 2012;7:29-32.
33. Pandit A, Sachdeva T, Bafna P. Ameliorative effect of leaves of carica papaya in ethanol and antitubercular drug induced hepatotoxicity. Br J Pharm Res 2013;3:648-61.
34. S Kantham. Influence of carica papaya linn extracts on paracetamol and thioacetamide-induced hepatic damage in rats. Internet J Pharmacol 2009;9:1.
35. Rajkapoor B, Jayakar B, Kavimani S, Murugesh N. Effect of dried fruits of Carica papaya Linn on hepatotoxicity. Biol Pharm Bull 2002;25:1645-6.
36. Oloyede HO, Adaja MC, Ajiboye TO, Salawu MO. The anti-ulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed on an indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in male albino rats. J Integr Med 2015;13:105-14.
37. Rahmani AH, Aly SM, Ali H, Babiker AY, Srikar S, Khan AA. Therapeutic effects of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera) in the prevention of diseases via modulation of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-tumour activity. Int J Clin Exp Med 2014;7:483–91.
38. Otsuki N, Dang NH, Kumagai E, Kondo A, Iwata S, Morimoto C. Aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves exhibits anti-tumor activity and immunomodulatory effects. J Ethno-pharmacol 2010;127:760-7.
39. Maniyar Y, Bhixavatimat P. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of aqueous extract of Carica papaya Linn. leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Ayurveda Integrative Med 2012;3:70–4.
40. Juárez-Rojop IE, Díaz-Zagoya JC, Ble-Castillo JL, Miranda-Osorio PH, Castell-Rodríguez AE, Tovilla-Zárate CA, et al. Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. BMC Complementary Altern Med 2012;12:236.
41. Olagunja JA, Ogunlana CO, Gbile Z. Preliminary studies on the hypoglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of unripe mature fruits of Carica papaya. Nig J Biochem Mol Biol 1995;10:21–3.
42. Adeneye AA, Olagunja JA. Preliminary hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of aqueous seed extract of Carica papaya Linn in Wistar rats. Biol Med 2009;1:1–10.
43. Debnath S, Babre N, Manjunath YS, Mallareddy V, Parameshwar P, Hariprasath K. Nephroprotective evaluation of ethanolic extract of the seeds of papaya and pumpkin fruit in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. J Pharm Sci Technol 2010;2:241-6.
44. Nale LP, More PR, More BK, Ghumare BC, Shendre SB, Mote CS. Protective effect of carica papaya l. seed extract in gentamicin-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in rats. Int J Pharm Biol Sci 2012;3:508-15.
45. Sripanidkulchai B, Wongpanich V, Laupattarakasem P, Suwansaksri J, Jirakulsomchok D. Diuretic effects of selected Thai indigenous medicinal plants in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2001;75:185-90.
46. Kovendan K, Murugan K, Panneerselvam C, Aarthi N, Kumar M, Subramaniam J, Amerasan D, et al. Antimalarial activity of Carica papaya (Family: Caricaceae) leaf extract against plasmodium falciparum. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2012;2:S306–S311.
47. Subenthiran S, Choon TC, Cheong KC, Thayan R, Teck MB, Muniandy PK, et al. Carica papaya leaves juice significantly accelerates the rate of increase in platelet count among patients with dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever. J Evidence-Based Complementary Altern Med 2013. doi.org/10.1155/2013/616737. [Article in Press]
48. Siddique O, Sundus A, Ibrahim MF. Effects of papaya leave on thrombocyte counts in dengue-a case report. J Pak Med Assoc 2014;64:364–6.
49. Udoh P, Kehinde A. Studies on the antifertility effect of pawpaw seeds (Carica papaya) on the gonads of male albino rats. Phytother Res 1999;13:226-8.
50. Dosumu OO, Akinola OB, Oremosu AA, Noronha CC, Okanlawon AO. Antifertility effects of the aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn.) seeds on estrous cycle and ovulation of adult cyclic Sprague–Dawley rats. Niger J Health Biomed Sci 2008;7:31–3.
51. Lakshman J, Changamma C. Antispermatogenic effect of Carica papaya seed extract on steroidogenesis in albino rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;5:67-9.
52. Lohiya NK, Manivannan B, Mishra PK, Pathak N, Sriram S, Bhande SS, et al. Chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds induces long-term reversible azoospermia in langur monkey. Asian J Androl 2002;4:17-26.
53. Sarker SK, Begum N, Mondal D, Siddique MA, Rashid MA. In vitro study of the antiamoebic effect of methanol extract of mature seeds of Carica papaya on trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica. Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2010;5:45-7.
54. Athesh K, Karthiga D, Brindha P. Anti-obesity effect of aqueous fruit extract of carica papaya L. in rat fed on high-fat cafeteria diet. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4 Suppl 5:327-30.
55. Kebebew Z, Shibeshi W. Evaluation of anxiolytic and sedative effects of 80% ethanolic Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) pulp extract in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2013;25;150:665-71.
56. Halim SZ, Abdullah NR, Afzan Z, Abdul Rashid BA, Jantan I, Ismail Z. Acute toxicity of Carica papaya leaf extract in Sprague Dawley rats” J Med Plants Res 2011;5:1867–72.
57. Tarkang PA, Agbor GA, Armelle TD, Ramthe TLR, David K, Ngadena YSM. Acute and chronic toxicity studies of the aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Carica papayaLinn in Wistar rats. J Nat Prod Plant Resour 2012;2:617-27.
Statistics
1959 Views | 2809 Downloads
How to Cite
Rahmani, A. H., and Y. H. Aldebasi. “POTENTIAL ROLE OF CARICA PAPAYA AND THEIR ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS IN THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF DISEASES”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 8, no. 1, Nov. 2015, pp. 11-15, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/8891.
Section
Review Article(s)