GLUE ABUSE IN LOME: INVESTIGATION AND TOXICOLOGICAL STUDY ON WISTAR RATS

  • Badjabaissi Pierre University of Lome
  • Aboudoulatif Diallo Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Lome (Togo), bDepartment of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lome, Togo
  • Lawson Evi Povi University of Lome
  • Koffi Amegbor University of Lome
  • Kwashie Eklu Gadegbeku University of Lome
  • Christian Moesch University Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2
  • Edmond Creppy University of Lome
  • Messanvi Gbeassor University of Lome

Abstract

Objectives: Volatile substances abuse (VSA) is considered as one of the most dangerous forms of drug abuse leading to serious accidents and fatalities. This study aims to assess the extent and dangers of the sniffing of '' Dia'' glue, used by the vulcanizer to paste the cars' tires.

Methods: The first phase of the study involved a survey with vulcanizers of the district I of Lome. The effect of the glue was then evaluated on female wistar rats, by inhalation' in a 1L capacity jar for a period of 5 min at doses of 320 mg/l and 640 mg/l. The rat behavioral changes, driving test, tail flick test, tolerance test and 28 d subchronic toxicity test were carried out.

Results: The survey has identified street vendors as glue sniffers (80.95%). The most cited reason for the glue inhalation was the tailism (79.76%) and the presumed effect was to feel stronger (76.19%). On wistar rat, ‘‘Dia'' glue has induced some behavioral changes. It has increased significantly the righting recovery reflex time and the maintaining time of the tail in warm water. After 28 d exposition, 5 min per day, ‘‘Dia'' glue increased significantly (p˂0.001) the relative weight of the spleen, the AST (p˂0.001) and ALT (p˂0.001). It has also induced an anaemia associated with a thrombocytosis. The analysis of the glue by GC-HS-MS has showed a high amount of toluene (65%), a lesser proportion of dimethyl cyclohexane, ethyl acetate and traces of benzene, ethylbenzene and xylene.

Conclusion: The sniffing of ‘‘Dia'' glue is very dangerous. Addiction especially that which is done with volatile substances must, therefore, be carefully controlled.

 

Keywords: Glue sniffing, Sensorimotor function, Subchronic test, Toxicological analysis, Toluene

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Moosa A, Wekl L. Solvent abuse in black children in Natal. S Afr Med J 1981;59:509-10.
2. O'Connor D. Glue sniffing and volatile substance abuse. Hampshire: Gower; 1983. p. 103.
3. Gellman V. Glue-sniffing among winnipeg school children. Can Med Assoc J 1968;98:411-3.
4. Važan P, Khan MR, Poduška O, Št'astná L, Miovský M. Chronic toluene use among roma youth in eastern Slovakia. Subst Use Misuse 2011;46:57-61.
5. Abgrall JM, Botta A. Approche psychiatrique d'un fait criminologique; La toxicomanie aux colles et solvants. Bull Acad Natl Med 1983;167:849-54.
6. Verma R, Balhara YPS, Deshpande SN. Inhalant abuse: a study of a tertiary care de-addiction clinic. East Asian Archives Psychiatry 2011;21:157-63.
7. Balster RL. Neural basis of inhalant abuse. Drug Alcohol Depend 1998;51:207-14.
8. Neumark Y, Bar-Hamburger R. Volatile substance misuse among youth in Israel: results of a national school survey. Subst Use Misuse 2011;46:21-6.
9. Elkoussi A, Bakheet S. Volatile substance misuse among street children in upper Egypt. Subst Use Misuse 2011;46:35-9.
10. Garland EL, Howard MO, Vaughn MG. Volatile substance misuses in the United States. Subst Use Misuse 2011;46:21-6.
11. Metwally S, Gebrehiwet Y, Yimesghen Y. Glue sniffing and health hazards among street children: an Eritrean field study. Eur J Res Soc Sci 2014;2:11-28.
12. Lubman DI, Yucel M, Lawrence AJ. Inhalant abuse among adolescents: neurobiological considerations. Br J Pharmacol 2008;154:316-26.
13. OCDE. Repeated dose oral toxicity test method. In: OCDE Guidelines for testing of chemicals, N ° 408, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France; 1998.
14. OECD. Repeated dose oral toxicity test method. In OECD Guidelines for testing of chemicals, N ° 407. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France; 2008.
15. Sofowora EA. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. John Viley and Sons Ltd; 1984. p. 142-6.
16. Cruz S, Pàez-Martinez N, Pellicer F, Salazar L, Lopez-Rubalcava C. Toluene increases acute term nociception in mice. Behav Brain Res 2001;120:213-20.
17. Brecher EM. Inhalants and solvents and glue sniffing, licit and illicit drugs. Little Brown 1972;6:309-34.
18. Irwin S, Houde RW, Bennett DR, Hendershot LC, Seevers, MH. The effects of morphine, methadone and meperidine on some reflex responses of a spinal animal to nociception stimulation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1951;101:132-43.
19. Rinsky RA. Benzene and leukemia: an epidemiologic risk assessment. Environ Health Perspect 1989;82:189-91.
20. Halley P, Perry R, Ennulat D, Frame S, Johnson C, Lapointe JM, et al. Best practice guideline for the routine pathology evaluation of the immune system. Toxicol Pathol 2005;33:404-7.
21. Dybing E, Doe J, Groten J, Kleiner J, O’Brien J. Hazard characterization of Chemicals in food and diet: Dose response, mechanisms and exploration issues. Food Chem Toxicol 2002;40:237-82.
22. Michael B, Yano B, Sellers RS, Perry R, Morton D, Roome N, et al. Evaluation of organ weights for rodent and non-rodent toxicity studies: a review of regulatory guidelines and a survey of current practices. Toxicol Pathol 2007;35:742-50.
23. Diallo A, Gbeassor M, Vovor A, Eku-Gadegbekou K, Aklikokou K, Agbonon A, et al. Effect of tectona grandis on phenylhydrazine-induced anaemia in rats. Fitoterapia 2008;79:332-6.
24. Ciccoli L, Ferrali M, Rossi V, Signorini C, Alessandrini C, Comporti M. Hemolytic drugs aniline and dapsone induce iron release in erythrocytes and increase the free iron pool in spleen and liver. Toxicol Lett 1999;110:57-66.
25. Borrell Fontelles J, Alexander D. Directive européenne 2005/59/CE du 26 octobre 2005. Journal officiel de l'Union européenne ; 2005.
26. Win-Shwe TT, Fujimaki H. Neurotoxicity of toluene. Toxicol Lett 2010;198:93-9.
27. Bonnard N, Falcy M, Fastier A, Jargot D. INRS (Institut national de recherche et de sécurité). Fiche toxicologique FT17 (Cyclohexane); 2010.
28. Viala A, Botta A. Toxicologie: benzène et homologues supérieurs. 2nd Ed. Lavoisier; 2005. p. 563-71.
Statistics
223 Views | 387 Downloads
How to Cite
Pierre, B., A. Diallo, L. E. Povi, K. Amegbor, K. E. Gadegbeku, C. Moesch, E. Creppy, and M. Gbeassor. “GLUE ABUSE IN LOME: INVESTIGATION AND TOXICOLOGICAL STUDY ON WISTAR RATS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 8, no. 1, Nov. 2015, pp. 348-52, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/9555.
Section
Original Article(s)