STUDY OF SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS ON ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATIONS CONTAINING FICUS SPECIES
Objective: The present study aims at screening the synergistic effect on the therapeutic efficiency of traditional herbal medicine Nalpamaradi Choorna and Nalpamaradi Keram, containing four Ficus species. The efficiency of formulations prepared by mixing crude drug is tested concerning their Antioxidant and Antibacterial activities. It will also provide and validate the use of these drugs in the current trend of targeted Combination Therapy for various neurodegenerative diseases.
Methods: The in-vitro studies of the methanol extracts of the barks of the four individual plants, their different combinations, and the choorna were conducted by DPPH method, and the obtained EC50 values were compared to evaluate the synergistic effect. The antibacterial activity of Nalpamaradi Keram and the four Ficus plants was tested against two microorganisms Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) using agar well method.
Results: The formulation prepared by mixing equal proportions of the four plants exhibited maximum %AA value of 93.36 % and EC50 value 8.00 Âµg/ml while the marketed drug showed maximum % AA of 87.30 % and an EC50 value of 29.0Âµg/ml. The combination of Ficus bengalensis (F. ben), Ficus racemosa (F. rac) and Ficus religiosa (F. rel) demonstrated the maximum % AA of 92.35 % and a very low EC50 value of 6.00Âµg/ml. All the samples except Ficus microcarpa (F. mic) exhibited antibacterial property against both the bacteria. Nalpamaradi Keram has shown the zone of inhibition of 20.0 mm against S. aureus and 18.0 mm against E. coli.
Conclusion: The present investigation justifies the traditional use of these medicinal plants as antibacterial and antioxidant agents and validates their synergistic effect with improved activity in the formulations. Therefore, it is judicious to mix all the four Ficus species in the formulation of Nalpamaradi choorna and Nalpamaradi keram.
Keywords: Antioxidant and synergistic activity, Antimicrobial activity, Ficus species, Polyherbal formulations, Radio protectivity
2. Nadkarni AK. Indian Materia Medica. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan Pvt. Ltd; 1954.
3. N Sirisha, M Sreenivasulu, K Sangeeta, C Madhusudhana Chetty. Antioxidant properties of Ficus speciesâ€“a review. Int J PharmTech Res 2010;2:2174-82.
4. Perez C, Pauli M, Bazerque P. An antibiotic assay by the agar well diffusion method. Acta Biologie et Medicine Experimental; 1990. p. 113-5.
5. Shakouie S, Eskandarinezhad M, Mokhtari H, Frough M, Soroush M. Antimicrobial efficacy of AH-Plus, adseal and Endofill against Enterococcus Faecalis-an in vitro study. Afr J Microbiol Res 2012;6:991-4.
6. Halliwell B. Biochemistry of oxidative stress. Biochem Soc Trans 2007;35:1147-50.
7. Briviba K, Roussyn I, Sharov VS, Sies H. Attenuation of oxidation and nitration reaction of peroxynitrite by selenomethionine, selenocysteine, and Ebselen. Biochem J 1996;319:13-5.
8. Young I, Woodside J. Antioxidants in health and disease. J Clin Pathol 2001;54:176-86.
9. Willcox JK, Ash SL, Catignani GL. Antioxidants and prevention of chronic disease. review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2004;44:275-95.
10. Mittil HA. The antioxidants of higher plants. Phytochemistry 1998;27:969-78.
11. Droge W. Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function. Physiol Rev 2002;82:47-95.
12. Soares JR, Dinis TCP, Cunha AP, Almeida LM. Antioxidant activities of some extracts of Thymus zygis. Free Radical Res 1997;26:469-78.
13. Rice-Evans C, Sampson J, Bramley PM, Holloway DE. Why do we expect carotenoids to be antioxidants in vivo? Free Radical Res 1997;26:381-98.
14. Gil MI, Ferreres F, TomÃ¡s-BarberÃ¡n FA. Effect of postharvest storage and processing on the antioxidant constituents (Flavonoids and Vitamin C) of fresh-cut spinach. J Agric Food Chem 1999;47:2213-7.
15. KÃ¤hkÃ¶nen MP, Hopia AI, Vuorela HJ, Rauha JP, Pihlaja K, Kujala TS, et al. Antioxidant activity of plant extracts containing phenolic compounds. J Agric Food Chem 1999;47:3954-62.
16. Vinson JA, Dabbagh YA, Serry MM, Jang J. Plant flavonoids, especially tea flavonols, are powerful antioxidants using an in vitro oxidation model for heart disease. J Agric Food Chem 1995;43:2800-2.
17. Valko M, Rhodes CJ, Moncol J, Izakovic M, Mazur M. Oxidants and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer. Mini review. Chem Biol Interact 2006;160:1-40.
18. Davies KJ. Oxidative stress: the paradox of aerobic life. Biochem Soc Symp 1995;61:1-31.
19. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC, Cross CE. Free radicals, antioxidants, and human diseases: where are we now? J Lab Clin Med 1992;119:598-620.
20. Osawa, T. Novel natural antioxidants for utilization in food and biological systems. Japan Scientific Societies Press; 1994.
21. Vaya J, Belinky PA, Aviram. Antioxidant constituents from licorice root: isolation, structure elucidation and antioxidative capacity towards LDL oxidation. Free Radical Biol Med 1997;23:302-13.
22. Preeti R, Devanathan V, Loganathan M. Antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacy of some medicinal plants against food-borne pathogens. Adv Biol Res 2010;4:122-5.
23. Farrukh A, Ahmad I. Broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal properties of certain traditionally used Indian medicinal plant. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2003;19:653-7.
24. Mousa O, Vuorela P, Kiviranta J, Abdel-Wahab S, Hiltunen R, Vuorela H. Bioactivity of certain egyptian Ficus species. J Ethnopharmacol 1994;41:71-6.
25. Ahmad S, Rao H, Akhtar M, Ahmad I, Hayat MM, Iqbal Z, Nisar-ur-Rahman. Phytochemical composition and pharmacological prospectus of Ficus benghalensis Linn. (Moraceae)-A review. J Med Plants Res 2011;5:6393-400.
26. Manimozhi DM, Sankaranarayanan S, Kumar GS. Effect of different extracts of stem bark of Ficus species on multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2012;3:2122-9.
27. Changwei Ao, Anping Li, Abdelnaser A. Elzaawely, Tran D Xuan, Shinkichi Tawata. Evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Ficus microcarpa L. fil. extract. Food Control 2008;19:940â€“8.
28. Ghosh G, Subudhi BB, Badajena LD, Ray J, Mishra MK. Antibacterial activity of Polyalthia longifolia var. Angustifolia stem bark extract. Int J PharmTech Res 2011;3:256-60.
29. Joydeep Mazumdar, Rachana Kunria, Devender Pathak. Evaluation of synergistic antimicrobial activity and antioxidant activity of blend of essential oil contains fennel, coriander, ajowan, and caraway. IOSR J Pharm Biol Sci 2014;9:87-94.
30. Manjulika Yadav, Sanjukta Chatterji. Improved antibacterial efficacy of a novel formulation-synergistic effect of herbs. Int J Pharm, Chem Biol Sci 2014;4:36-9.
31. Shahidi F, Janitha PK, Wanasundara PD. Phenolic antioxidants. CRC Critical Rev. Food Sci Nutr 1992;32:67-103.