A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ON INDIAN FLORAL BIODIVERSITY AS EMINENT RESERVES FOR ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT STRATEGY OF DIABETES MELLITUS
Among the most common chronic diseases in the world, Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an extremely studied and widely manifested multi-factorial disease which deliberately requires multi-modal therapeutic strategies . It has an age-old history of being recognized and even symptomised in various cultures of the world majorly as glycosuria (sweet urine). Hence, the treatment strategies for DM have been in the process of development and documentation since a long time in traditional medicine systems. Back then the nature of drug used to be mostly unorganized and crude. The major difference now in the modern era is that the treatment strategies basically concentrate on identifying, isolating, modifying or searching alternatives of the lead compounds and exact active principles which attribute to the desired therapeutic nature of the plant. The aim of this paper is to acknowledge the various treatment methods available for Diabetes mellitus and to review the Traditional Indian herbs and plants which are most efficiently, safely and widely accepted medicament for DM and source of future lead compounds and family-wise segregation of these plants. This review is in total compliance with the strong and effective traditional medicinal systems of India.Keywords: Traditional medicinal herbs, Diabetes treatment, Alternative Anti-diabetics, Herbal Drugs
Tiwari AK, Rao JM. Diabetes mellitus and multiple therapeutic approaches of phytochemicals: present status and future prospects. Curr Sci 2002;83:30-8.
Shaw JE, Sicree RA, Zimmet PZ. Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2009;87:4â€“14.
Bjork S, Kapur A, King H. Global, Policy aspects of diabetes in India. Health Policy 2003;66:61-72.
Singh LW. Traditional medicinal plants of Manipur as anti-diabetics. J Med Plants Res 2011;5:677-87.
Guang-Yan Tang, Xue-Juan Li, Hong-Yu Zhang. Antidiabetic components contained in vegetables and legumes. Molecules 2008;13:1189-94.
Wadkar KA, Magdum CS, Patil SS, Naikwade NS. Anti-diabetic potential and Indian medicinal plants. J Herb Med Toxicol 2008;2:45-50.
No authors listed. Report of the expert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1997;20:1183-91.
Sharma R, Arya V. A review on fruits having anti-diabetic potential. J Chem Pharm Res 2011;3:204-12.
Shankar P, Sundarka MK. Management of type 2 diabetes: evidence based approach. J Indian Acad Clin Med 2001;2:244-50.
Quseem A, Humphry LL, Chau R, Snow and V, Shekelle P. Use of intensive insulin therapy for the management of glycemic control in hospitalized patients. A clinical practice guideline from the American college of physicians. Ann Internal Med 2011;154:260-7.
Ryan EA, Lakey JRT, Rajotte RV, Korbutt GS, Kin T, Imes S, et al. Clinical outcomes and insulin secretion after islet transplantation with the Edmonton protocol. Diabetes 2011;50:710-9.
Guignard AP, Oberholzer J, Benhamu PY, Touzet S, Bucher P. Cost analysis of human islet transplantation for the treatment of type 1 diabetes in the swissâ€“french consortium gragil. Diabetes Care 2007;27:895-900.
Offenbacher EG, Pi-Sunyer FX. The beneficial effect of chromium-rich yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids in elderly subjects. Diabetes 1980;29:919-25.
Sjogren A, Floren CH, Nilsson A. Magnesium, potassium, and zinc deficiency in subjects with type II diabetes mellitus. Acta Med Scand 1988;224:461-6.
Cragg GM, Newman DJ. Biodiversity: a continuing source of novel drug leads. Pure Appl Chem 2005;77:7-24.
Hu H. A review of treatment of diabetes by acupuncture during the past forty years. J Tradit Chin Med 1995;15:145-54.
Hooper PL. Hot-tub therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1999;341:924-5.
Atangwho J, Ebong PE, Eyong EU, Williams IO, Eteng MU, Egbung GE. The comparative chemical composition of leaves of some antidiabetic medicinal plants: Azadirachta indica, vernonia amygdalina, and gongronema latifolium. Afr J Biotechnol 2009;8:4685-9.
Hui H Tang G, Vay Liang W Go. Hypoglycemic herbs and their action mechanisms. Chin Med 2009;4:11.
Nelson DL, Cox MM. Lehninger; Principles of biochemistry. 4th ed. WH Freeman and co. [NY]; 2004.
Dey L, Attele AS, Chun-Su Y. Alternative therapies for type 2 diabetes. Altern Med Rev 2002;7:45-58.
Singh A, Singh K, Saxena A. Hypoglycaemic activity of different extracts of various herbal plants. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm 2010;1:212-4.
Alarcon-Aguilara FJ, Roman-Ramos R, Peres-Guitierraz S, Aguilar-Cotreras A, Contreras-Weber CC, Florenz-Saenz JL. Study of the antihyperglycemic effect of plants used as antidiabetics. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;61:101-10.
Ramesh B, Ragavan B. Hypoglycemic activity of Asteracantha longifolia nees. In alloxan induced diabetic rats. Asian J Microbiol Biotechnol Environ Sci 2007;9:825-8.
Zhang XF, Tan BK. Antihyperglycemic and anti-oxidant properties of Andrographis paniculata in normal and diabetic rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2000;27(5, Suppl 6):358-63.
Dheer R, Bhatnagar P. A study of the antidiabetic activity of Barleria prionitis Linn. Indian J Pharmacol 2010;42 Suppl 2:70.
Suba V, Murugesan T, Arunachalam G, Mandal SC, Saha BP. The anti-diabetic potential of Barleria lupulina extract in rats. Phytomedicine 2004;11:202-5.
Prasath GS, Pillai SI, Subramanian S. Biochemical evaluation of hypoglycemic activity of inorganic constituents of Achyranthes aspera seeds in STZ induced experimental diabetes in rats. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2011;9:152-8.
Vetrichelvana T, Jegadeesan M. Antidiabetic activity of alcoholic extract of Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. Ex Schultes in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;80(2 Suppl 3):103â€“7.
Kumar ABS, Lakshman K, Nandeesh R, Kumar PAA, Manoj B, Kumar V, Shekar DS. In vitro alpha-amylase inhibition and in vivo antioxidant potential of Amaranthus spinosus in alloxan-induced oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Saudi J Biol Sci 2011;18:1-5.
Bhowmik A, Khan LA, Akhter M, Rokeya B. Studies on the antidiabetic effects of Mangifera indica stem-barks and leaves on nondiabetic, type 1 and type 2 diabetic model rats. Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2009;4:110-4.
Sokeng SD, Lontsi D, Moundipa PF, Jatsa HB, Watcho P, Kamtchouing P. Hypoglycemic effect of anacardium occidentale L. methanol extract and fractions on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Int J Med Med Sci 2007;2:133-7.
Gupta RK, Kesari AN, Murthy PS, Chandra R, Tandon V, Watal G. Hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Annona squamosa L. in experimental animals. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;99:75-8.
Singh K, Dhongade H, Singh N, Kashyap P. Hypolipidemic activity of ethanolic extract of Daucus carota seeds in normal rats. Int J Biomed Adv Res 2010;1:73-80.
Aissaoui A, Zizi S, Israili ZH, Lyoussi B. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of coriandrum sativum in meriones shawi rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;137:652-61.
Jagtap AG, Patil PB. Antihyperglycemic activity and inhibition of advanced glycation end product formation by Cuminum cyminum in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2010;48:2030-6.
Ahmad M, Akhtar MS, Malik T, Gilani AH. The hypoglycaemic action of the flavonoid fraction of Cuminum nigrum seeds. Phytother Res 2000:14:103-6.
Eidi A, Eidi M, Rohani AH, Basati F. Hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of Carum carvi L. Seeds in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Med Plants 2010;3:106-13.
Abu-Zaiton AS. Anti-diabetic activity of Ferula assofoetida extract in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Pak J Biol Sci 2010;13:97-100.
Rasineni K, Bellamkonda R, Singareddy R, Desireddy S. Antihyperglycemic activity of Catharanthus roseus leaf powder in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Pharmacognosy 2010;2:195â€“201.
Itankar PR, Lokhande SJ, Verma PR, Arora SK, Sahu RA, Patil AT. Antidiabetic potential of unripe Carissa carandas Linn. fruit extract. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;135:430â€“3.
Naskar S, Mazumder UK, Pramanik G, Gupta M, Suresh Kumar RB, Bala A, et al. Evaluation of the antihyperglycemic activity of Cocos nucifera Linn. on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;138:769â€“73.
Chauhan K, Bajaj G, Chauhan B. Ameliorative potential of Gymnema sylvestre on hyperglycaemia mediated oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Trends Biosci 2014;7:3527-33.
Rathod NR, Chitme HR, Irchhaiya R, Chandra R. Hypoglycemic effect of Calotropis gigantea Linn. leaves and flowers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oman Med J 2011;26:104-8.
Pareek H, Sharma S, Khajja BS, Jain K, Jain GC. Evaluation of the hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential of Tridax procumbens (Linn.). BMC Complementary Altern Med 2009;9:48.
Nirmala A, Saroja S, Devi GG. Antidiabetic activity of Basella rubra and its relationship with the antioxidant property. Br Biotechnol J 2011;1:1-9.
Alonso-Castro AJ, Zapata-Bustos R, Romo-YaÃ±ez J, Camarillo-Ledesma P, GÃ³mez-SÃ¡nchez M, Salazar-Olivo LA. The antidiabetic plants Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth (Bignoniaceae) and Teucrium cubense Jacq (Lamiaceae) induce the incorporation of glucose in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant murine and human adipocytes. J Ethnopharmacol 2010;127:1-6.
Bhavsar C, Talele GS. The potential anti-diabetic activity of Bombax ceiba. Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2013;8:102-6.
El-Missiry MA, El-Gindy AM. Amelioration of alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats by oil of Eruca sativa seeds. Ann Nutr Metab 2010;44:97â€“100.
Thirumalai T, Therasa SV, Elumalai EK, David E. Hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on a streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rat. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2011;1:323-5.
Bellamkonda R, Rasineni K, Singareddy SR, Kasetti RB, Pasurla R, Chippada AP, et al. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of alcoholic extract of Commiphora mukul gum resin in streptozotocin are induced diabetic rats. Pathophysiology 2011;18:255-61.
Sharma B, Salunke R, Balomajumder C, Daniel S, Roy P. Antidiabetic potential of alkaloid-rich fraction from Capparis decidua on diabetic mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2010;127:457-62.
Subramoniam A, Pushpangadan P, Rajasekharan S, Evans DA, Latha PG, Valsaraj R. Effects of Artemisia pallens Wall. on blood glucose levels in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1996;50:13-7.
Kabir AU, Samad MB, Ahmed A, Jahan MR, Akhter F, Tasnim J, et al. an Aqueous fraction of Beta vulgaris ameliorates hyperglycemia in diabetic mice due to enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion mediated by acetylcholine and glp-1 and elevated glucose uptake via increased membrane bound glut4 transporters. PloS One 2015;10:e0116546. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116546. [Article in Press]
Thomson HAJ, Ojo OO, Flatt PR, Abdel-Wahab YHA. Aqueous bark extracts of Terminalia arjuna stimulates insulin release, enhances insulin action and inhibits starch digestion and protein glycation in vitro. Austin J Endocrinol Diabetes 2014;1:1-6.
Kannan VR, Rajasekar GS, Rajesh P, Balasubramanian V, Ramesh N, Solomon EK, et al. Anti-diabetic activity on ethanolic extracts of fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. Alloxan induced diabetic rats. Am J Drug Discovery Dev 2012;2:135-42.
Rika N, Ueno S, Tsubata M, Yamaguchi K, Takagaki K, Hira T, et al. Dietary sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaf extract attenuates hyperglycemia by enhancing the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Food Funct 2014;5:2309-16.
Chaudhary S, Khosa RL, Jha KK, Verma N. Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of Cressa cretica Linn in alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Pharmacologyonline 2010;31:181-8.
Aransiola EF, Daramola MO, Iwalewa EO, Seluwa AM, Olufowobi OO. Anti-diabetic effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaves. Int J Biol Biomol Agric Food Biotechnol Eng 2014;8:89-93.
Houcine B, Rachid A, Rabah D, Farid F, Nabila B, Boufeldja T. Effect of saponosides crude extract isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (L.) seeds on blood glucose level in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Med Plants Res 2011;5:6864-8.
Hossain MZ, Shibib BA, Rahman R. Hypoglycemic effects of Coccinia indica: inhibition of key gluconeogenic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphatase. Indian J Exp Biol 1992;30:418-20.
Bayat A, Jamali Z, Hajianfar H, Beni MH. Effects of Cucurbita ficifolia Intake on type 2 diabetes: a review of current evidence. Shiraz E-Med J 2014;15:e20586. Doi:10.17795/ semj 20586. [Article in Press]
Srivastava AK, Mishra A, Gautam S, Pal S, Mishra A, Kumar AR, et al. Effect of Momordica charantia fruits on streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus and its associated complications. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:356-63.
Koneri RB, Samaddar S, Ramaiah CT. Antidiabetic activity of a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Momordica cymbalaria Fenzl. Indian J Exp Biol 2014;52:46-52.
Reddy GT, Kumar BR, Mohan GK, Ramesh M. Antihyperglycemic activity of Momordica dioica fruits in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Asian J Pharmacodynamics Pharmacokinetics 2006;6:327-9.
Minaiyan M, Zolfaghari B, Kamal A. Effect of a hydroalcoholic and buthanolic extract of Cucumis sativus seeds on blood glucose level of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2011;14:436-42.
Pimple BP, Kadam PV, Patil MJ. The antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Luffa acutangula fruit extracts in streptozotocin-induced NIDDM rats. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2011;4.2:156-63.
Hazra M, KunduSen S, Bhattacharya S, Haldar PK, Gupta M, Mazumder UK. Evaluation of hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects of Luffa cylindrica fruit extract in rats. J Adv Pharm Educ Res 2011;2:138-46.
SÃ¡nchez de Medina F, Gamez MJ, Jimenez I, Jimenez J, Osuna JI, et al. Hypoglycemic activity of juniper berries. Planta Med 1994;60:197-200.
Adeneye AA, Amole OO, Adeneye AK. Hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities of the aqueous leaf and seed extract of Phyllanthus amarus in mice. Fitoterapia 2007;77:511-14.
Ezike AC, Akah PA, Okoli CC, Okpala CB. Experimental evidence for the antidiabetic activity of Cajanus cajan leaves in rats. J Basic Clin Pharm 2010;1:81-4.
Bhaskar A, Vidhya VG, Ramya M. Hypoglycemic effect of Mucuna pruriens seed extract on normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Fitoterapia 2008;79:539-43.
Maruthupandian A, Mohan VR. Antidiabetic, the antihyperlipidaemic and antioxidant activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Int J PharmTech Res 2011;3:1681-7.
Parameshwar S, Srinivasan KK, Rao CM. Oral antidiabetic activities of different extracts of Caesalpinia bonducella seed kernels. Pharm Biol 2008;40:590-5.
Kumar A, Lingadurai S, Shrivastava TP, Bhattacharya S, Haldar PK. Hypoglycemic activity of Erythrina variegata leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Pharm Biol 2011;49:577-82.
Wadood A, Wadood N, Shah SA. Effects of Acacia arabica and Caralluma edulis on blood glucose levels of normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits. J Pak Med Assoc 1989;39:208-12.
Vanitha M, Karpagam T, Varalakshmi B, Suja Pandian R. A comparative study on the anti-diabetic potential of Aloe vera gel and fenugreek seeds on experimentally induced diabetic rats. Pharmacogn Commun 2012;2:57-61.
Gray AM, Flatt PR. Pancreatic and extra-pancreatic effects of the traditional anti-diabetic plant, Medicago sativa (lucerne). Br J Nutr 1997;78:325-4.
Kavipriya S, Tamilselvan N, Thirumalai T, Arumugam G. Anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Coastal Life Med 2013;1:113-7.
HelmstÃ¤dter A. Beans and diabetes: Phaseolus vulgaris preparations as antihyperglycemic agents. J Med Food 2010;13:251-4.
Kumar S, Narwal S, Kumar D, Singh G, Narwal S, Arya R. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of Saraca asoca (Roxb.) De Wild leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2012;2:170-6.
Sharma N, Garg V. Antidiabetic, and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of Butea monosperma leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Indian J Biochem Biophys 2009;46:99-105.
Daisy P, Rajathi M. Hypoglycemic effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn (Fabaceae) in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Trop J Pharm Res 2009;8:393-8.
Ahmad S, Khan M. Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical evaluation of leaves of Tephrosia villosa. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;5 Suppl 2:265-7.
Sharma D, Singla YP. Evaluation of the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Prosopis cineraria (Linn.) in wistar rats. Am J Sci Ind Res 2013;2:751-5.
Annamalai P, Sethupathy S, Kodukkur Pugalendi V. Effect of Casearia esculenta root extract on blood glucose and plasma antioxidant status in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Pol J Pharmacol 2003;55:43-50.
Minaiyan M, Ghannadi A, Movahedian A, Hakim-Elahi I. Effect of Hordeum vulgare L. (Barley) on blood glucose levels of normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Res Pharm Sci 2014;9:173â€“8.
Senthilkumar MK, Sivakumar P, Changanakkattil F, Rajesh V, Perumal P. Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Bambusa vulgaris leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Int J Pharm Sci Drug Res 2011;3:208-10.
Singh SK, Ri PK, Jaiswal D, Watal G. Evidence-based critical evaluation of the glycemic potential of Cynodon dactylon. J Evidence-Based Complementary Altern Med 2008;5:415-20.
Bajpai MB, Asthana RK, Sharma NK, Chatterjee SK, Mukherjee SK. Hypoglycemic effect of swerchirin from the hexane fraction of Swertia chirayita. Planta Med 1991;57:102-4.
Maroo J, Vasu VT, Gupta S. Dose-dependent hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extract of Enicostemma littorale Blume in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Phytomedicine 2003;10:196-9.
Shrinath BM, Bhat HP, Pai RJ, Boloor R, Palatty PL. The chemistry and medicinal uses of the underutilized Indian fruit tree Garcinia indica Choisy (kokum): a review. Food Res Int 2011;44:1790-9.
Yoshikawa M, Murakami T, Matsuda H, Yamahara J, Murakami N, Kitagawa I. Bioactive saponins, and glycosides. III. Horse chestnut: The structures, inhibitory effects on ethanol absorption, and hypoglycemic activity of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, and IIIa from the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L. Chem Pharm Bull 1996;44:1454-64.
Venkateswarlu V, Kokate CK, Rambhau D, Veeresham C. Antidiabetic activity of roots of Salacia macrosperma. Planta Med 1993;59:391-3.
Serasinghe S, Serasinghe P, Yamazaki H, Nishiguchi K, Hombhanje F, Nakanishi S, et al. Oral hypoglycemic effect of Salacia reticulata in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Phytother Res 1990;4:205-6.
Matsuda H, Murakami T, Yashiro K, Yamahara J, Yoshikawa M. Antidiabetic principles of natural medicines. IV. Aldose reductase and a-glucosidase inhibitors from the roots of Salacia oblonga Wall. (Celastraceae): structure of a new friedelane-type triterpene, kotalagenin 16-acetate. Chem Pharm Bull 1997;47:1725-9.
Sedigheh A, Parkhideh S, Solhpour A, Madani H, Mahzouni P, Rahimi P. Effect of ethanolic extract of Juglans regia L. on blood sugar in diabetes-induced rats. J Med Food 2008;11:533-8.
Jiguo H, Baoping Ji, Ye Li, Zhang X. Antihyperglycemic activity of Prunella vulgaris L. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2007;16:427-31.
Patil R, Patil R, Ahirwar B, Ahirwar D. Isolation and characterization of anti-diabetic component (bioactivity-guided fractionation) from Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae) aerial part. Asian Pac J Trop 2011;4:278-82.
Gharaibeh MN, Elayan HH, Salhab AS. Hypoglycemic effects of Teucrium polium. J Ethnopharmacol 1988;24:93-9.
Ramalingam S, Naresh R, Shanthi P, Sachdanandam P. Antihyperglycemic effect of iridoid glucoside, isolated from the leaves of Vitex negundo in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with special reference to glycoprotein components. Phytomedicine 2012;19:211-6.
Dhanabal SP, Marugaraja MKM, Suresh B. Antidiabetic activity of Clerodendron phlomoidis leaf extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Indian J Pharm Sci 2008;70:841-4.
Kar MK, Swain TR, Mishra SK. Antidiabetic activity of Clerodendrum serratum (l.) Moon leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014;7:260-3.
Das S, Bhattacharya S, Prasanna A, Suresh Kumar RB, Pramanik G, Haldar PK. Preclinical evaluation of antihyperglycemic activity of Clerodendron infortunatum leaf against streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes Ther 2011;2:92-100.
Thomson M, Al-Amin ZM, Al-Qattan KK, Shaban LH, Ali M. Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of garlic (Allium sativum) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Int J Diabetes Metab 2007;15:108-15.
Akash MSH, Rehman K, Chen S. Spice plant Allium cepa: Dietary supplement for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutrition 2014;30:1128-37.
Moniruzzaman M, Rokeya B, Ahmed S, Bhowmik A, Khalil MI, Gan SH. In vitro antioxidant effects of Aloe barbadensis Miller extracts and the potential role of these extracts as antidiabetic and antilipidemic agents on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic model rats. Molecules 2012;17:12851-67.
Hafizur RM, Kabir N, Chishti S. Asparagus officinalis extract controls blood glucose by improving insulin secretion and Î²-cell function in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Br J Nutr 2012;108:1586-95.
Bhati R, Singh A, Saharan VA, Ram V, Bhandari A. Strychnos nux-vomica seeds: Pharmacognostical standardization, extraction, and antidiabetic activity. J Ayurveda Integrative Med 2012;3:80-4.
Saha BK, Bhuiyan MNH, Mazumder K, Haque KF. Hypoglycemic activity of Lagerstroemia speciosa L. extracts on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat: Underlying mechanism of action. Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2009;4:79-83.
Bhaskar A, Vidhya VG. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn on streptozotocinâ€“induced diabetic rats. Int J Diabetes Dev Countries 2012;32:214-8.
Kaur G, Kamboj P, Kalia AN. Antidiabetic and anti-hypercholesterolemic effects of aerial parts of Sida cordifolia Linn. on Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 2011;2:428-34.
Satyanarayana T, Sarita T, Balaji M, Ramesh A, Boini MK. Antihyperglycemic and hypoglycemic effect of Thespesia populnea fruit in normal and alloxan-induced diabetes in rabbits. Saudi Pharm J 2005;12:107-11.
Sabitha V, Ramachandran S, Naveen KR, Panneerselvam K. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic potential of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Pharm BioAllied Sci 2011;3:397-402.
Rajesh V, Sarthaki R, Palani R, Jayaraman P. In vitro evaluation of Memecylon umbellatum Burm. F for antihyperglycemic activity and phytochemical potential. Int J Pharm Phytopharm Res 2014;6:785-91.
Perera PRD, Ekanayake S, Ranaweera KKDS. In vitro study on antiglycation activity, antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Osbeckia octandra L. leaf decoction. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2013;2:198-201.
Dholi SK, Raparla R, Mankala SK, Nagappan K. In vivo antidiabetic evaluation of neem leaf extract in alloxan induced rats. J Appl Pharm Sci 2011;1:100-5.
Sangeetha MK, Priya CDM, Vasanthi HR. Anti-diabetic property of Tinospora cordifolia and its active compound is mediated through the expression of Glut-4 in L6 myotubes. Phytomedicine 2013;20:246-8.
Ruan CT, Lam SH, Lee SS, Su MJ. Hypoglycemic action of borapetoside A from the plant Tinospora crispa in mice. Phytomedicine 2013;20:667-75.
Mohammad Y, Jain P, Debajyoti D, Kharya MD. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effect of different extracts of Acacia arabica lamk bark in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Int J Phytomed 2010;2:133-8.
Jarald E, Joshi SB, Jain DC. Biochemical study on the hypoglycaemic effects of extract and fraction of Acacia catechu wild in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Int J Diabetes Metab 2009;17:63-9.
Bhat M, Ali M, Mir SR. Anti-diabetic activity of Ficus carica L. stem barks and isolation of two new flavonol esters from the plant by using spectroscopic techniques. Asian J Biomed Pharm Sci 2013;3:22-8.
Mishra JN, Ajay A, Vevekanand S, Srivastava AK. Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of leaves and bark of Ficus bengalensis Linn. Int J Res Pharm Biomed Sci 2013;4:644-6.
Yakubu TM, Salau AK, Oloyede OB, Akanji MA. Effect of aqueous leaf extract of Ficus exasperata in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Cameroon J Exp Biol 2014;10:35-43.
Shukla S, Rai PK, Chatterji S, Rai NK, Rai AK, Watal G. LIBS based screening of glycemic elements of Ficus religiosa. Food Biophys 2012;7: 43-9.
Biworo A, Tanjung E, Iskandar K, Suhartono E. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activity of Jackfruit (Artocarpus Heterophyllus) Extract. J Med Bioeng 2015;4:318-28.
Wang Y, Xiang L, Wang C, Tang C, He X. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects and phytochemicals of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) polyphenol enhanced extract. PloS 2013;8:e71144. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071144. [Article in Press]
Mahendran S, Badami S, Maithili V. Evaluation of antidiabetic effect of embelin from Embelia ribes in alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Biomed Preventive Nutr 2011;1:25-31.
Dey B, Mitra A. Chemo-profiling of eucalyptus and study of its hypoglycemic potential. World J Diabetes 2013;4:170-6.
Jana K, Ghosh A, Chatterjee K, Ghosh D. Antidiabetic activity of seed of Eugenia jambolana in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rat: an apoptotic and genomic approach Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:407-12.
Mazumdar S, Akter R, Talukder D. Antidiabetic and antidiarrhoeal effects on ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava (L.) Bat. leaves in Wistar rats. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2015;5:10-4.
Akinlolu AA, Salau BA, Ekor M, Otulana J. Musa sapientum with exercises attenuates hyperglycemia and pancreatic islet cells degeneration in alloxan-diabetic rats. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015;4:202-7.
Pari L, Amarnath SM. Antidiabetic activity of Boerhavia diffusa L. effect on hepatic key enzymes in experimental diabetes. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;91:109â€“13.
Huang CF, Chen YW, Yang CY, Lin HY, Way TD, Chiang W, et al. Extract of lotus leaf (Nelumbo nucifera) and its active constituent catechin with insulin secretagogue activity. J Agric Food Chem 2011;59:1087-94.
Shajeela PS, Kalpanadevi V, Mohan VR. Potential antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of Nymphaea pubescens extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats. J Appl Pharm Sci 2012;2:83-8.
Zhang J, Huang X, Sun X, Pei D, Di D. Efficient method for the screening and identification of anti-diabetic components in the leaves of Olea europaea L. New J Chem 2014;38:3796-802.
Rajkumar SB, Jalalpure SS. Evaluation of the antidiabetic and antioxidant effect of Schrebera swietenioides fruit ethanolic extract. Der Pharm Lett 2010;2:278-88.
Ali MR, Hossain M, Runa JF, Hasanuzzaman M. Preliminary cytotoxic activity of different extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi (fruits). Int Curr Pharm J 2013;2:83-4.
Ananda PK, Kumarappan CT, Christudas S, Kalaichelvan VK. Effect of Biophytum sensitivum on streptozotocin and nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:31-5.
Agila KN, Kavitha R. Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidaemic and antioxidant activity of Oxalis corniculata in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. J Nat Sci Res 2012;2:9-17.
Chiabchalard A, Nooron N. Antihyperglycemic effects of Pandanus Amaryllifolius Roxb. Leaf extract. Pharmacogn Mag 2015;11:117â€“22.
Nabi SA, Kasetti RB, Sirasanagandla S, Tilak TK, Kumar MVJ, Rao CA. The antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Piper longum aqueous root extract in STZ induced diabetic rats. BMC Complementary Altern Med 2013;13:37.
Radhika K, Kumaravel B, Thamizhiniyan V, Subramanian S. Biochemical evaluation of antidiabetic activity of Piper betel leaves extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Asian J Res Chem 2013;6:76-82.
Kaleem M, Sheema, Sarmad H, Bano B. Protective effects of piper nigrum and vinca rosea in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2005;49:65â€“71.
Ahmed I, Naeem M, Zaheer ASA, Hafiz M. Investigation of the anti-diabetic and hypocholesterolemic potential of psyllium husk fiber (Plantago psyllium) in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic albino rats. Int J Biomed Life Sci 2010;6:185-9.
Hannan JMA, Ali L, Khaleque J, Akhter M, Flatt PR, Abdel-Wahab YHA. Aqueous extracts of husks of Plantago ovata reduce hyperglycaemia in type 1 and type 2 diabetes by inhibition of intestinal glucose absorption. Br J Nutr 2006;96:131-7.
Mohammed HG, Rai R, Rai G, Singh HB, Thakur AK, Kumar V. Potential mechanism of anti-diabetic activity of Picrorhiza kurroa. TANG 2014;4:38-42.
Ghosh T, Maity TK, Singh J. Antihyperglycemic activity of bacosine, a triterpene from Bacopa monnieri in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Planta Med 2011;77:804-8.
Ranjan V, Vats M, Gupta N, Sardana S. Antidiabetic potential of the whole plant of Adiantum capillus veneris Linn. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Int J Pharm Chem Res 2014;6:341-7.
Singh S, Farswan M, Ali S, Afzal M, Al-Abbasi FA, Kazmi I, et al. Antidiabetic potential of triterpenoid saponin isolated from Primula denticulate. Pharm Biol 2014;52:750-5.
Salwe KJ, Sachdev DO, Bahurupi Y, Kumarappan M. Evaluation of antidiabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum in male Wistar albino rats. J Nat Sci Biol Med 2015;6:56-62.
Adnyana IK, Sigit ZI, Asad SA. Antidiabetic activity of Nigella sativa l. Seed powder and its combination with gliclazide in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:434-7.
Cisse A, Ndiaye A, Lopez-Sall P, Seck F, Faye B, Faye B. Antidiabetic activity of Zizyphus mauritiana Lam (Rhamnaceae). Dakar Med 2000;45:105-7.
Rajasekaran S, Jaykar B, Anandan R, Sidheeq KPA, Vannamalar S. Anti-diabetic activity of leaves of Zizyphus nummularia by dexamethasone-induced diabetic rat model. Int J PharmTech Res 2013;5:844-51.
Sur TK, Hazra AK, Bhattacharyya D, Hazra A. Antiradical and antidiabetic properties of standardized extract of Sunderban mangrove Rhizophora mucronata. Pharmacogn Mag 2015;11:389-94.
Shafi S, Tabassum N. Anti-diabetic and Hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic extract of Eriobotrya Japonica fruits in Alloxan induced diabetic rats. Int J Pharm Chem Biol Sci 2013;3:398-405.
Teotia S, Singh M. Hypoglycemic effect of Prunus amygdalus seeds in albino rats. Indian J Exp Biol 1997;35:295-6.
Lee SY, Park SL, Hwang JT, Yi SH, Nam YD, Lim SI. Antidiabetic effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) fermented by Cheonggukjang in KK-Ay diabetic mice. J Evidence-Based Complementary Altern Med 2012. Doi:10.1155/2012/163280. [Article in Press]
Sevugan A, Kavimanib S, Kadalmanic B, Ahmedd ABA, Akbarshac MA, Raod MV. Antidiabetic activity of leaf and callus extracts of Aegle marmelos in the rabbit. Scienceasia 2008;34:317-21.
Yadav S, Vats V, Dhunnoo Y, Grover JK. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of Murraya koenigii leaves in diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;82:111â€“6.
Dahake AP, Chakma CS, Chakma RC, Bagherwal P. Antihyperglycemic activity of methanolic extract of Madhuca longifolia bark. Diabetol Croat 2010;39:3-8.
Mishra MR, Mishra A, Pradhan DK, Panda AK, Behera RK, Jha S. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Scoparia dulcis linn. Indian J Pharm Sci 2013;75:610-14.
Cabrera W, Genta S, Said A, Farag A, Rashed K, SÃ¡nchez. Hypoglycemic activity of Ailanthus excelsa leaves in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Phytother Res 2008;22:303â€“7.
Fukunaga T, Miura T, Furuta K, Kato A. Hypoglycemic effect of the rhizomes of Smilax glabra in normal and diabetic mice. Biol Pharm Bull 1997;20:44-6.
Gandhi GR, Ignacimuthu S, Paulraj MG, Sasikumar P. Antihyperglycemic activity and antidiabetic effect of methyl caffeate isolated from Solanum torvum Swartz. fruit in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2011;670:623-31.
Gorelick J, Rosenberg R, Smotrich A, HanuÅ¡ L, Bernstein N. Hypoglycemic activity of withanolides and elicitated Withania somnifera. Phytochemistry 2015;116:283â€“9.
Ahir KB, Patel BG, Patel SB, Mehta FA. Effect of Solanum nigrum L. on blood glucose concentration and lipid profile in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Pharmacogn Commun 2013;3:797-807.
Zhu J, Liu W, Yu J, Zou S, Wang J, Yao W, et al. Characterization and hypoglycemic effect of a polysaccharide extracted from the fruit of Lycium barbarum L. Carbohydr Polym 2013;98:8-16.
Eshrat H, Hussain MA, Jamil K, Rao M. Preliminary studies on the hypoglycaemic effect of Abroma augusta in alloxan diabetic rats. Indian J Clin Biochem 2001;16:77-80.
Venkatesh S, Reddy GD, Reddy YS, Sathyavathy D, Madhava Reddy B. Effect of Helicteres isora root extracts on glucose tolerance in glucose-induced hyperglycemic rats. Fitoterapia 2004;75:364-7.
Abeywickrama KRW, Ratnasooriya WD, Amarakoon AMT. Oral hypoglycaemic, antihyperglycemic and antidiabetic activities of Sri Lankan broken orange pekoe fannings (BOPF) grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;135:278-86.
Kazmi I, Rahman M, Afzal M, Gupta G, Saleem S, Afzal O, et al. Anti-diabetic potential of ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside: a new triterpenic gycosidic ester from Lantana camara. Fitoterapia 2012;83:142-6.
Nayak BS, Ellaiah P, Dinda SC. Antibacterial, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of Gmelina arborea Roxb fruit extracts. Int J Green Pharm 2012;6:224-30.
Rajesh MS, Harish MS, Sathyaprakash RJ, Shetty AR, Shivananda TN. Antihyperglycemic activity of the various extracts of Costus speciosus rhizomes. J Nat Rem 2009;9:235-41.
Ponnusamy S, Zinjarde S, Bhargava S, Kulkarni-Kale U, Sawant S, Ravikumar V. Deciphering the inactivation of human pancreatic Î±-amylase, an antidiabetic target by bisdemethoxycurcumin, a small molecule inhibitor, isolated from Curcuma longa. Nat Prod J 2013;3:15-25.
Lamba SH, Bhargava CS, Thakur M, Bhargava S. Î±-glucosidase and Aldose reductase inhibitory activity in vitro and anti-diabetic activity in vivo of Tribulus terrestris L.(Dunal). Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011;3:270-2.
Zaahkouk SAM, Somaia ZA, Rashid, Mattar AF. Antiâ€“diabetic properties of water and ethanolic extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits flesh in senile diabetic rats. Egypt J Hosp Med 2003;10:90â€“108.
Ramesh G, Jayesh P. Adverse drug reactionâ€“what we need to know. Hosp Pharm 2003;3:99-101.
Tripathi AK, Bhoyar PK, Baheti JR, Biyani DM, Khalique V, Kothmire MS, et al. Herbal antidiabetics: a review. Int J Res Pharm Sci 2011;2:30-7.
Marles RJ, Farnsworth NR. Plants as sources of antidiabetic agents. Econ Med Plant Res 1994;6:149-87.
Angelova N, Kong HW, Heijden R van der, Yang SY, Choi YH, Kim HK, et al. Recent methodology in the phytochemical analysis of ginseng. Phytochem Anal 2008;19:2-16.
Shan JJ, Rodgers K, Lai CT, Sutherland SK. Challenges in natural health product research: the importance of standardization. Proc West Pharmacol Soc 2007;50:24-30.
Liu RH. Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action. J Nutr 2008;134:3479S-85S.
Kawase M, Wang R, Shiomi T, Saijo R, Yagi K. Antioxidative activity of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-(3"-O-methyl)gallate isolated from fresh tea leaf and preliminary results on its biological activity. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2000;64:2218-20.
Goldman P. Herbal medicines today and the roots of modern pharmacology. Ann Intern Med 2001;135:594â€“600.
Yeh GY, Eisenberg DM, Kaptchuk TJ, Phillips RS. Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003;26:1277â€“94.
Maritim AC, Sanders RA, Watkins JB 3rd. Diabetes, oxidative stress, and antioxidants: a review. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2003;17:24-38.
Gandnaik MS. Indigenous foods in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Bombay Hosp Res J 2001;43:548â€“61.
Chauhan A, Sharma PK, Srivastava P, Kumar N, Dudhe R. Plants having potential antidiabetic activity: a review. Der Pharm Lett 2010;2:369-87.