EXTRACTS OF EUPHOBIA HIRTA LINN AND PHYSALIS ANGULATA L. AND THEIR AMALGAMATION DEMONSTRATE POTENCY AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA
Objective: The goal was to investigate the antibacterial activity of the extracts of Euphobia hirta and Pysalis angulata from Ghana on clinical bacteria isolate found to associate with wound and skin infections.
Methods: The aqueous and crude ethanolic extracts and extract-PEG ointment formulation as well as the combination of the extracts of P. angulata and E. hirta were tested against Psedomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus. aureus, using the agar diffusion bioassay. Antibacterial activities were indicated by the diameters of zones of inhibition of bacterial growth for both the test extracts as well the extract-PEG ointment formulations.
Results: Ethanolic crude extract of E. hirta inhibited P. aeruginosa at inhibition zones ranging from 24Â±0.08 mm at 50 Âµg/ml to 21.00Â±0.40 mm at 250 Âµg/ml, whilst the aqueous crude extracts showed potency against P. aeruginosa at varying inhibition zones ranging from 20Â±0.60 mm at 250 Âµg/ml to 4.00Â±0.20 mm at 50 Âµg/ml. Ethanolic E. hirta crude extracts exhibited potency against S. aureus and was dose dependent, with a decrease in inhibition as concentration increased, recording a minimum zone of inhibition at 13.00Â±0.30 mm at 250 Âµg/ml and maximum zone of inhibition of 16.00Â±0.20 mm at 50 Âµg/ml. Only one concentration of 100 Âµg/ml at 20Â±0.60 mm zone for the aqueous extract of E. hirta was potent against S. aureus. Ethanolic crude extract of P. angulata inhibited P. aeruginosa at zones ranging from 23Â±0.30 mm at 100 Âµg/ml to 13.00Â±0.20 mm at 50 Âµg/ml, whereas the aqueous crude extracts showed potency against P. aeruginosa at dose dependent concentrations ranging from 10Â±0.30 mm at 50 Âµg/ml to 13.00Â±0.30 mm at 250 Âµg/ml. Here, inhibition zone increased as concentration was increased. Ethanolic P. angulata crude extracts exhibited potency against S. aureus, recording a minimum zone of inhibition at 12.00Â±0.40 mm at 50 Âµg/ml and maximum zone of inhibition of 21.00Â±0.30 mm at 250 Âµg/ml. At lower concentration of 50 Âµg/ml, the combination of ethanolic E. hirta and P. angulata inhibited S. aureus at a zone of inhibition of 2 mm for the combination of the crude aqueous extracts; P. aeruginosa was inhibited at the zone of 1.0 mm with extract concentration of 50 Âµg/ml. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the above values compared with the activity of Ciprofloxacin (positive control) indicated significant inhibitory activity by the unformulated P angulata and E hirta ethanolic crude extracts.
Conclusion: The study indicates that crude extracts of E. hirta and P. angulate are possible sources of natural antibacterial agents against both skin and wound infections caused by S. aureus and P. aeruginosa.
Keywords: Inhibition, Amalgamation, Gram-negative, PEG-ointment
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