FATTY ACID PROFILING AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF TOTAL POLAR LIPID CONTENT OF CYANOBACTERIUM NOSTOC MUSCURUM
Objective: In recent years cyanobacteria has gained much importance due to the presence of secondary metabolites possessing several biological activities like antibacterial, antifungal, anti algal, antiprotozoal, and antiviral activities. Nostoc muscurum, a member of family Nostocaceae, known to have components with potent bioactive properties. The present investigation deals with the analysis of total polar lipids of Nostoc muscurum and its antioxidant potential.
Methods: Culture of Nostoc muscurum was grown under lab conditions. Cells were harvested in earlier stationary phase and total polar lipid extracted by modified Bligh and Dyer method. Antioxidant analysis of total polar lipid was done by DPPH free radical method. Finally, total polar lipid was transesterified, and components were identified by GC-MS analysis.
Results: Highest percentage inhibition of free radical (65%) was detected at concentration 500 Âµg/ml which might be due to the presence of bioactive principles hexadecanoic acid. Total twenty-nine compounds were identified through GC-MS analysis. GC-MS analysis revealed that Phthalic acid and 9-Octadecenoic acid, ethyl ester was found in higher concentration in the total polar lipid of Nostoc muscurum as compared to other bioactive compounds. Former is known to possess antimicrobial property while later was found to have bioactive properties like anti-inflammatory, anticancer, hypocholesterolemic, 5-alpha reductase inhibitor and anti androgenic activity.
Conclusion: Identified compounds with bioactive properties were mostly organic acids. Also, higher percentage of hydrocarbon was found in the fraction which might be used in the fuel industry. The biological activities of some of the components ranged from antimicrobial, antioxidant and antitumoral activities and can be used in pharmaceutical formulations.
2. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL. â€œHow many drug targets are there?â€. Nat Rev Drug Discovery 2006;5:993-6.
3. Wase NV, Wright PC. Systems biology of cyanobacterial secondary metabolite production and its role in drug discovery. Expert Opin Drug Discovery 2008;3:903-29.
4. Singh RK, Tiwari SP, Rai AK, Mohapatra TM. Cyanobacteria: an emerging source for drug discovery. J Antibiotics 2011;64:401-12.
5. Ananya, Aisha Kamal, Iffat Zareen Ahmad. Cyanobacteria â€œthe blue-green algaeâ€ and its novel applications: a brief review. Int J Innovation Appl Stud 2014;7:251-61.
6. Salvador LA, Paul VJ, Luesch H. Caylobolide B, a macrolactone from symplostatin 1-producing marine cyano-bacteria Phormidium spp. from Florida. â€ J Nat Prod 2010; 73:1606â€“9.
7. Namikoshi M, Rinehart KL. Bioactive compounds produced by cyanobacteria. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 1996;17:373-84.
8. Singh S, Kate BN, Banerjee UC. Bioactive compounds from cyanobacteria and microalgae: an overview. Crit Rev Biotechnol 2005;25:73-95.
9. Klyachko-Gurvich GL. Changes in the content and composition of triglyceride fatty acids during the restoration of Chlorella pyrenoidosa cells after nitrogen starvation. Soviet Plant Physiol 1974;21:611-8.
10. Tornabene TG, Holzer G, Lien S, Burris N. Lipid composition of the nitrogen starved green alga Neochloriso leoabundans. Enzyme Microb Technol 1983;5:435-40.
11. Suresh CS, Rajeshwar PS, Donat PH. The role of lipids and fatty acids in stress tolerance in cyanobacteria. Acta Protozool 2002;41:297 308.
12. Stewart WDP. Some aspects of structure and function in N2â€“fixing cyanobacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 1980;34:497-536.
13. BergÃ© JP, Barnathan G. Fatty acids from lipids of marine organisms: molecular biodiversity, roles as biomarkers, biologically active compounds, and economic aspects. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 2005;96:49-125.
14. Chen IN, Chang CC, Wang CY, Shyu YT, Chang TL. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Zingiberaceae plants in Taiwan. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2008;63:15-20.
15. Betz JM, Gay ML, Mossoba MM, Adams S, Portz BS. Chiral gas chromatographic determination of ephedrine-type alkaloids in dietary supplements containing MÃ¡ HuÃ¡ng. J AOAC Int 1997;80:303-15.
16. Banerjee A, Sharma R, Chisti Y, Banerjee UC. Botryococcu sbraunii: A renewable source of hydrocarbons and other chemicals. Crit Rev Biotechnol 2002;22:245-79.
17. MacKinney G. Absorption of light by chlorophyll solutions. J Biochem 1941;140:315-22.
18. Bligh EG, Dyer WJ. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol 1959;37:911-7.
19. Mohamed FR, Mohsen MS, Asker, Zeinab KI. Functional bioactive compounds and biological activities of Spirulina platensis Lipids. Czech J Food Sci 2008;26:211â€“22.
20. Randerath K. Thin layer chromatography. Academic Press Inc. New York; 1964. p. 124.
21. Sato N, Murata. Temperature shift-induced responses in lipids in the blue-green alga, Anabaena variabilis, the central role of diacylmono-galactosyl-glycerol in thermo-adaptation. Biochim Biophys Acta 1980;619:353-6.
22. Liu XJ, Jiang Y, Chen F. Fatty acid profile of the edible filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme at different temperatures and developmental stages in liquid suspension culture. Process Biochem 2005;40:371â€“7.
23. Blois MS. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 1958;26:1199-200.
24. Li WK, Glover WHE, Morris I. Physiology of carbon photo assimilation by Oscillatoria thiebautii In the caribbean Sea. Limnol Oceanogr 1980;25:447-58.
25. Morris I, Glover H. Physiology of photosynthesis by marine coccoid cyanobacteriaâ€“some ecological implications. Limnol Oceanogr 1981;26:957-96.
26. Shettima AY, Karumi Y, Sodipo OA, Usman H, Tijjani MA. Gas chromatographyâ€“mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of bioactive components of ethyl acetate root extract of guiera senegalensis J. F. gmel. J Appl Pharm Sci 2013;3:146-50.
27. Manonmani R, Catharin SS. GC-MS analysis of bioactive components of an important medicinal fern Actiniopteris radiata (Swartz) Link. World J Pharm Res 2015;4:1860-9.
28. Pinelo M, Rubilar M, Sineiro J, Nunez MJ. Extraction of antioxidant phenolics from almond hulls (Prunus amygdalus) and pine sawdust (Pinus pinaster). Food Chem 2004;85:267â€“73.
29. Abe K, Hattor H, Hiran M. Accumulation and antioxidant activity of secondary carotenoids in the aerial microalga Coelastrella striolata var. multistriata. Food Chem 2005;100:656â€“61.
30. Guerin M, Huntley ME, Olaizola M. Haematococcus astaxanthin: applications for human health and nutrition. Trends Biotechnol 2003;21:210â€“6.
31. Wang HM, Pan JL, Chen CY, Chiu CC, Yang MH, Chang HW, et al. Identification of anti-lung cancer extract from Chlorella vulgaris C-C by antioxidant property using supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Process Biochem 2010;45:1865â€“72.
32. LeÃ³n R, MartÃn M, Vigara J, Vilchez C, Vega J. Microalgae-mediated photoproduction of Î²-carotene in aqueous-organic two-phase systems. Biomol Eng 2003;20:177â€“82.
33. Srivastava A, Bhargava P, Rai L. Salinity and copper-induced oxidative damage and changes in the antioxidative defense systems of Anabaena doliolum. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2005;21:1291â€“8.