CYTOTOXIC STUDIES AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ORTHOSIPHON THYMIFLORUS (ROTH) SLEESEN
Objective: Plant-derived compounds with therapeutic effect are getting attention all over the world. Researchers are mainly targeting to ethnic and folk knowledge for the exploration of novel drug candidates. Orthosiphon thymiflorus is a medicinal, aromatic herb used in folk medicine and Ayurvedic preparations. Hence, it is important to evaluate the cytotoxic potential and chemical profile of the plant.
Methods: Cytotoxicity was evaluated in vitro in DLA and EAC cell lines and in vivo by Allium chromosome aberration assay. Phytochemical screening of the extract was done by UV/Vis spectroscopy and FT-IR.
Results: Plant extracts showed significant toxicity in cell lines in higher concentration (100 Âµg/ml and 200 Âµg/ml). Cytotoxicity in vivo was determined by the reduction of mitotic index (MI) and induction of chromosome aberration (CA) by the extracts in meristematic cells of Allium. Plant extracts showed a time and dose dependent effect on MI and incidence of CA. Both extracts induced a spectrum of clastogenic as well as non-clastogenic CA. Phytochemical analysis of both extracts revealed the presence of bioactive compounds.
Conclusion: Bioactivity of the crude extracts may be ascribed to the active compounds present in the extract as indicated by spectroscopic analysis. Further phytochemical investigations may pave a new avenue to cancer drug research. Also, the cytotoxicity of extract apprises the necessity of further studies in the mammalian system.
Keywords: Orthosiphon thymiflorus, Cytotoxicity, Mitotic Index, Allium cepa Chromosome aberration assay, UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR.
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