MACROPHAGE TARGETING: A STRATEGY FOR LEISHMANIASIS SPECIFIC DELIVERY
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonotic infection caused by an obligate intra macrophage protozoan parasite â€˜Leishmania'. Despite of a number of remedies available, leishmaniasis is still a speedy migrating and deadly infection due to the resistance of the parasite to the drugs as well as their toxicity. Hence, there is a need for targeted drug delivery system for enhancing the systematic effect of antileishmanial drugs. Although the number of antileishmanial drugs in a variety of dosage forms is available, there is an urgency to develop more efficient, cost-effective and safe therapy, which can be achieved by macrophage targeting utilizing passive (phagocytosis), and/or active (receptor mediated) strategies utilizing nano-formulations. Positive considerations of various factors like the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect, size, and charge of nano-formulations can facilitate the passive targeting, and various receptors like lectin receptor, mannose receptor, mannosyl-fucosyl receptor, scavenger receptor, etc on the macrophage surface may play an important role in active drug targeting. Also, monoclonal antibody, interferon's, tufstin are other agents which have been broadly utilized for targeting.
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