• Diky Mudhakir Department of , School of Pharmacy, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia.
  • Adik Ahmadi Department of , School of Pharmacy, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia.
  • Muhamad Insanu Department of , School of Pharmacy, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia.
  • Neny Nuraini Biofarma Limited Company, Bandung, Indonesia.


Objective: Oftentimes, the recombinant antigen for the use of vaccines is less immunogenic than live attenuated or inactive vaccines. Hence, a potent adjuvant is needed to enhance the immune response. Moreover, the role of vector design is also important to facilitate the improvement of the immune response. The aim of this research was to develop hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-loaded nanoparticles and Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extracts as an adjuvant using chitosan polymer.

Methods: Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by the ionic gelation method using sodium tripolyphosphate as the cross-linking agent. A system was composed of chitosan core in which HBsAg and M. oleifera extracts were incorporated. The concentration of HBsAg used in this combination was 10 μg/ml, and the concentrations of extracts were 10, 50, and 100 μg/ml, respectively. In this study, three types of nanoparticles were produced: HBsAg-loaded nanoparticles, M. oleifera-loaded nanoparticles, and combination of HBsAg–M. oleifera-loaded nanoparticles. The nanoparticles formed were characterized by the particle size, HBsAg entrapment efficiency using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the entrapment efficiency of extracts using the total flavonoid method.

Results: The results showed that the particle size was between 111 and 245 nm. The entrapment efficiency of HBsAg in the separate formula was 79%, while that in the combined formula was approximately 96–98%. Furthermore, the entrapment efficiency of the extracts in the separate formula was around 64–91%, while that in the combined formula was 55–82.5%. Particularly, HBsAg–M. oleifera-loaded chitosan nanoparticles with the extract concentrations of 50 μg/ml showed the highest entrapment efficiencies of HBsAg and M. oleifera extracts of approximately 98 and 82.5%, respectively.

Conclusion: Collectively, the system has been successfully developed, so it is then plausible to determine the function of the devices to enhance the immune response in the future.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Chitosan, Hepatitis B surface antigen, Adjuvant, Moringa oleifera.


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How to Cite
Mudhakir, D., A. Ahmadi, M. Insanu, and N. Nuraini. “PACKAGING OF HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN VACCINE AND MORINGA OLEIFERA EXTRACT INTO CHITOSAN NANOPARTICLES”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 12, no. 1, Jan. 2019, pp. 346-50, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2019.v12i1.15386.
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