• Irda Fidrianny School of Pharmacy Bandung Institute of Technology
  • Lia Fikayuniar School of Pharmacy Bandung Institute of Technology
  • Muhamad Insanu School of Pharmacy Bandung Institute of Technology


Objectives: The objectives of this research were to study antioxidant activities from various seed extracts of four varieties of rambutan using
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) methods and correlation of total flavonoid
content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and total carotenoid content (TCC) with inhibitory concentration 50 (IC
) of DPPH and IC
Methods: Antioxidant activities, TFC, TPC, and TCC of various seed extracts were performed by ultraviolet -visible spectrophotometry and their
correlation with IC
of DPPH and IC
of ABTS antioxidant activities were analyzed by Pearson's method.
Results: Ethanolic seed extract of lebak bulus variety had the lowest IC
of DPPH scavenging activity 7 µg/ml, while ethyl acetate seed extract of rajah
variety had the lowest IC
of ABTS scavenging activity 7.34 µg/ml. The highest TFC, TPC, and TCC were given by ethyl acetate extract of binjai variety,
ethanolic extract of rapiah variety, and ethanolic extract of rajah variety, respectively. There were negatively high correlation between TFC, TPC,, TCC
in seed extracts of rapiah variety with their IC
of DPPH and IC
of ABTS scavenging activities.
Conclusions: All of ethyl acetate and ethanolic seed extracts of four varieties of rambutan were very strong antioxidant by DPPH and ABTS methods.
Flavonoid, phenolic, and carotenoid compound in seed extracts of rapiah variety were contributor in their antioxidant activities by DPPH and ABTS
methods. The IC
of DPPH and IC
of ABTS scavenging activities in seed extracts of lebak bulus, rajah, and rapiah varieties gave linear result.
Keywords: Antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, Seed, Four varieties, Rambutan,
Flavonoid, Phenolic, Carotenoid.


1. Souri E, Amin G, Farsan H, Barazandeh TM. Screening antioxidant activity and phenolic content of 24 medicinal plants extracts. DARU J Pharm Sci 2008; 16: 83 -87.
2. Khatua S, Roy T, Acharya K. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity of phenolic extract from Russula laurocerasi. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013; 6(4): 156-160.
3. Pourmorad F, Hosseinimehr SJ, Shahabimajd N. Antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoid content of some selected Iranian medicinal plants. Afr J Biotechnol 2006; 5(11): 1142-1145.
4. Fidrianny I, Sukowati A, Sukrasno. Invitro antioxidant activities of various leaves extracts from five varieties of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) and its correlation with total flavonoid, phenolic, carotenoid content. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014; 8(20): 139-143.
5. Xu BJ, Chang SK. Total phenolic content and antioxidant properties of eclipse black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as affected by processing methods. J Food Sci 2008; 73(2): H19-27.
6. Thaipong K, Boonprakob U, Crosby K, Zevallos LC, Byrne DH. Comparison of ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC assays for estimating antioxidant activity from guava fruit extracts. J Food Comp Anal 2006; 19: 669-675.
7. Lindley MG. The impact of food processing on antioxidants in vegetable oils, fruits and vegetables. Trends in Food Sci Technol 1998; 9: 336-340.
8. Samuagam L, Sia CM, Akowuah GA, Okechukwu PN, Yim HS. The Effect of Extraction Conditions on Total Phenolic Content and Free Radical Scavenging Capacity of Selected Tropical Fruits’ Peel. Health Environ J 2013; 4 (2): 80-102.
9. Pellegrini N, Serafini M, Colombi B, Rio DD, Salvatore S. Total antioxidant capacity of plant food, beverages and oils consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays. J Am Coll Nutr 2003; 133: 2812-2819.
10. Xu BJ, Chang SK. A comparative study on phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of rambutan as affected by extraction solvents. J Food Sci 2007; 72(2): S159-166.
11. Thitilertdecha N, Teerawutgulrag A, Rakariyatham N. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Nephelium lappaceum L. extracts. Food Sci Tech 2008; 41: 2029-203
12. Thitilertdecha N, Teerawutgulrag A, Kilburn JD, Rakariyatham N. Identification of Major Phenolic Compounds from Nephelium lappaceum L. and Their Antioxidant Activities. Molecule 2010; 15: 1453-1465.
13. Blois MS. Antioxidant determination by the use of stable free radicals. Nature 1958; 181: 1199-2000.
14. Bedawey AA. Characteristics of antioxidant isolated from some plants sources, Cairo: Shibin El-Kom; 2010. p. 1-11.
15. Li XC, Wang XZ, Chen DF, Chen SZ. Antioxidant activity and mechanism of protochatechuic acid in vitro. J Funct Food Health Dis 2011; 1: 232-244.
16. Chang CC, Yang MH, Wen HM, Chern JC. Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. J Food Drug Anal 2002; 10: 178-182.
17. Fidrianny I, Sari PI, Wirasutisna KR. Antioxidant activities in various peel extracts of four varieties rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) using DPPH, FRAP assays. Int. J Pharmacog Phytochem Res 2015; 7(2): 280-285.
18. Ling LT, Palanisamy UD. Review: Potential antioxidants from tropical plants, In: Valdez, B., editor, Food industrial processes-methods, Kuala Lumpur: In Tech; 1999. p.64-72.
19. Tachakittirungrod S, Okonogi S, Chowwanapoonpohn S. Study on antioxidant activity of certain plants in Thailand: Mechanism of antioxidant action of guava leaf extract. Food Chem 2007; 103: 381–388.
20. Fidrianny I, Rizkiya A, Ruslan K. Antioxidant activities of various fruit extracts from three Solanum sp. using DPPH and ABTS method and correlation with phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid content. J Chem Pharm Res 2015; 7(5): 666-672.
21. Heim KE, Tagliaferro AR, Bobilya DJ. Flavonoid antioxidants: Chemistry, metabolism and structure-activity relationships. J Nutr Biochem 2002; 13: 572 -584.
22. Foote, CS. Free radicals in biology. 3rd ed. New York: Academic Press; 1976
23. Beutner S, Bloedorn B, Hoffmann T, Martin HD. Synthetic singlet oxygen quenchers. Methods Enzymol 2000; 319: 226-241.
24. Kobayashi M, Sakamoto Y. Singlet oxygen quenching ability of astaxanthin esters from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Biotech Lett 1999; 21: 265-269.
25. Charles DJ. Antioxidant properties of spices leaves and other. London: John Willey; 2013.
26. Huang D, Ou B, Prior RL. The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays. J Agric Food Chem 2005; 53: 1841 -1856.
27. Müller L, Fröhlich K, Böhm V. Comparative antioxidant activities of carotenoids measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ABTS bleaching assay (aTEAC), DPPH assay and peroxyl radical scavenging assay. Food Chem 2011; 129: 139-148.
279 Views | 1041 Downloads
How to Cite
Fidrianny, I., L. Fikayuniar, and M. Insanu. “ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF VARIOUS SEED EXTRACTS FROM FOUR VARIETIES OF RAMBUTAN (Nephelium Lappaceum) USING DPPH AND ABTS ASSAYS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 8, no. 5, Sept. 2015, pp. 215-9,
Original Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>