QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITIES OF CRUCIFERAE VEGETABLES
Objective: The aim of this research program is to evaluate the antioxidant potentialities comprehensively utilizing commonly available cruciferous vegetables of India, viz., cabbage, cauliflower, kohlrabi, and radish.
Methods: The plant materials were procured and processed for cold extraction procedure using 70% ethanol. The extracts were primarily assessed
for their phytoconstituents and further for their in vitro antioxidant activity using various qualitative and quantitative estimations. The results ofÂ quantitative estimations were expressed in terms of equivalence with respective standards, and the antioxidant potentiality of various scavengingÂ and chelating activities were expressed in terms of 50% effective concentration. Further, correlation studies were made between quantitative andÂ qualitative assays to study the relationship between the effects of different phytoconstituents groups.
Results: In this study, the results revealed that all the four cruciferous vegetable extracts possess potential antioxidant activities. Among the extracts
under study kohlrabi has recorded superior antioxidant potential than others. It is clear from the study that the tested cruciferous vegetables
manifested differential expression of antioxidant capacity due to their phytoconstituents.
Conclusion: From the results, it can be concluded that the Cruciferae vegetables have potent antioxidant activity contributing to the use for health
benefits in addition to their nutritive role as vegetable.
Keywords: Cruciferae vegetables, Phytochemicals, In vitro antioxidant activity, Correlation.
2. Frei B, Higdon JV. Antioxidant activity of tea polyphenols in vivo: evidence from animal studies. J Nutr 2003; 133:3275Sâ€“3284S.
3. Wach A, Pyrzynska K, Biesaga M. Quercetin content in some food and herbal samples. Food Chem 2007; 100:699â€“704.
4. Podsedek A. Natural antioxidants and antioxidant capacity of Brassica vegetables: a review. LWT-Food Sci Technol 2007; 40:1â€“11.
5. Liu RH. Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action, J Nutr 2004; 134(12):3479S-3485S.
6. Kris Etherton PM, Hecker KD, Bonanome A, Coval SM, Binkoski AE, Hilpert KF, Griel AE, Etherton TD. Bioactive compounds in foods: their role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Am J Med 2002; 30(113 9B):71S-88S.
7. Yuan JM, Gago Dominguez M, Castelao JE, Hankin JH, Ross RK, Yu MC. Cruciferous vegetables in relation to renal cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer 1998; 77:211â€“6.
8. Cohen JH, Kristal AR, Stanford JL. Fruit and vegetable intakes and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92, 61â€“8.
9. Kristal AR, Lampe JW. Brassica vegetables and prostate cancer risk: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Nutr Cancer 2002; 42(1):1-9.
10. Jamuna KS, Ramesh CK, Riaz Mahmood, Pallavi M, Aditya Rao SJ. Effect of different extraction methods on total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of Raphanus sativus L. Int J Bioassays 2015; 4(12):4653-4657.
11. Trease GE, Evans WC. A Text book of Pharmacognosy. 11th ed. Bailliere Tidall:London; 1978. 530.
12. Khandelwal KR. Practical Pharmacognosy techniques and experiments. 16th ed. Nirali Prakashan: Pune; 2006. 149-156.
13. Kokate CK, Purohith AP, Gokhale SB. Pharmacognosy. Nirali Prakashan: Pune; 1990. 120.
14. Chandler SF, Dodds JH. The effect of phosphate, nitrogen and sucrose on the production of phenolics and solasidine in callus cultures of Solanum laciniatum. Plant Cell Reports 1993; 2, 1005-110.
15. Zhishen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem 1999; 64, 555-559.
16. Sadasivam S, Manickam A. Biochemical Methods. Second ed. New age international: New Delhi; 2004. 185-186.
17. Prieto P, Pineda M, Aguilar M. Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: specific application to the determination of Vitamin E. Anal Biochem 1999; 269:337â€“341.
18. Wong SP, Lai PL, Jen HWK. Antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts of selected plants. Food Chem 2006; 99:775-783.
19. Garrat DC. The quantitative analysis of drugs Japan: Chapman and Hall. Phcog mag 1964; 3:456-458.
20. Dinis TCP, Madeira VMC, Almeidam LM. Action of phenolic derivates (acetoaminophen, salycilate, and 5- aminosalycilate) as inhibitors of membrane lipid peroxidation and peroxyl radicals scavengers. Ach Biochem and Biophy 1994; 315: 161-169.
21. Nishimiki M, Rao NA, Yagi K. The occurrence of super-oxide anion in the reaction of reduced phenazine methosulfate and molecular oxygen. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1972; 46:849-853.
22. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC, Aruoma OI. The deoxyribose method: a simple "test tube" assay for determination of rate constants for reactions of hydroxyl radicals. Anal. Biochem 1987; 165:215â€219.
23. Oyaizu M. Studies on products of browning reactions: antioxidant activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucose amine. Jap J Nutr 1986; 44:307-315.
24. Halliwell B, Guttridge JMC. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. 2nd ed. Scientific Societies Press: Japan. 1989.
25. Lee YL, Huang GW, Liang Z.C, Mau JL. Antioxidant properties of various extracts from Hypsizigus marmoreus. Food Chem 2006; 104:1-7.
26. Ohr LM. Dietary antioxidants. Food Technol 2004; 58:67â€“74.
27. Trombino S, Serini S, Di Nicuolo F, Celleno L, Ando S, Picci N. Antioxidant effect of ferulic acid in isolated membranes and intact cells: synergistic interactions with Î²-tocopherol, Î²-carotene and ascorbic acid. J Agric Food Chem 2004; 52:2411â€“20.
28. Hamauzu Y, Irie M, Kondo M, Fujita T. Antiulcerative properties of crude polyphenols and juice of apple, and Chinese quince extracts. Food Chem 2008; 108:488â€“95.
29. Dragsted LO, Krath B, Ravn-Haren G, Vogel UB, Vinggard AM, Jensen PO, Loft S, Rasmussen SE, Sandstrom BM, Pedersen A. Biological effects of fruit and vegetables. Proc Nutr Soc 2006; 65:61â€“7.
30. Ames BN, Shigenaga MK, Hagen TM. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1993; 90: 7915â€7922.
31. Jamuna KS, Ramesh CK, Srinivasa TR, Raghu KL. in vitro antioxidant studies in some common fruits. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011a; 3(1):60-63.
32. Beecher, Ch WW. Cancer preventive properties of varieties of Brassica oleracea: a review. Am J Clin Nutr 1994; 59:1166Sâ€“1170S.
33. Cao G, Sofic E, Prior RL. (1996). Antioxidant capacity of tea and common vegetables. J Agric Food Chem 1996; 44:3426â€“3431.
34. Raghu KL, Ramesh CK, Srinivasa TR, Jamuna KS. DPPH scavenging and reducing power properties in common vegetables, Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2010; 1(4):399-406.
35. Frankel EN., Huang SW, Kanner J, German JB. Interfacial phenomena in the evaluation of antioxidants: bulk oils versus emulsions. J Agric Food Chem 1994; 42: 1054â€“1059.
36. West LG, Meyer KA, Balch BA, Rossi FJ, Schultz MR, et al. Glucoraphanin and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin contents in seeds of 59 cultivars of broccoli, raab, kohlrabi, radish, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, kale, and cabbage. J Agric Food Chem 2004; 52: 916-926.
37. Jamuna KS, Ramesh CK, Srinivasa TR, Raghu KL, Total antioxidant capacity in aqueous extracts of some common fruits, Int J Pharm Sci Res 2011; 2(2):448-453.
38. Suleria HAR, Butt MS, Anjum FM, Saeed F, Khalid N. Onion: Nature Protection Against Physiological Threats. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2015; 55, 50-66.
39. Rice Evans CA, Miller NJ, Bolwell PG, Bramley PM and Pridham JB. The relative antioxidant activities of plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoids. Free Radical Res 1995; 22:375-383.
40. Afanasâ€™ev IB, Dorozhko AI, Brodskii AV, Kostyuk VA, Potapovitch AI. Chelating and free radical scavenging mechanisms of inhibitory action of rutin and quercetin in lipid peroxidation. Biochem Pharmacol 1989; 38:1763â€“69.
41. Gyamfi MA, Aniya Y. Antioxidant properties of Thon-ningianin A, isolated from the African medicinal herb, Thonningia sanguine. Biochem Pharmacol 2002; 63:1725 â€“1737.
42. Chan A, Tran K, Raynor T, Ganz P and Chow C. Regeneration of Vitamin E in human platelets. J Biol Chem 1991; 266: 17290â€“17295.
43. Doba T, Burton G, Ingold K. Antioxidant and co-antioxidant activity of vitamin C. The effect of vitamin C, either alone or in the presence of vitamin E or a water-soluble vitamin E analogue, upon the peroxidation of aqueous multilamellar phospholipid liposomes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1985; 835: 298â€“303.
44. Sies H and Stahl W. Vitamin E and C, Î²-Carotene, and other carotenoids as antioxidants. Am J Clin Nutr 1995; 62:1315S-21S.
45. Wrona M, Korytowski W, Rozanowska M, Sarna T and Truscott TG. Cooperation of antioxidants in protection against photosensitized oxidation. Free Radical Biology Med 2003; 35:1319â€“1329.
46. Tsuchihashi H, Kigoshi M, Iwatsuki M, Niki E. Action of Î²-carotene as an antioxidant against lipid peroxidation. Arch Biochem Biophys 1995; 323: 137â€“147.
47. Willet WC. Diet and Health: what should we eat. Science 1994; 254: 532â€537.
48. Yuan JM, Gago-Dominguez M, Castelao JE, Hankin JH, Ross RK, Yu M C. Cruciferous vegetables in relation to renal cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer 1998; 77:211â€“6.
49. Cover C M, Hsieh S J, Tran S H, Hallden G, Kim GS, Bjeldanes LF. Indole-3-carbinol inhibits the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase-6 and induces a G1 cell cycle arrest of human breast cancer cells independent of estrogen receptor signaling. J Biol Chem 1998; 273:3838â€“47.
50. Xican Li, Xiaoting Wu, Ling Huang. Correlation between antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of Radix Angelicae sinensis (Danggui), Molecules 2009; 14: 5349-5361.
51. Kaur C, Kapoor HC. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some Asian vegetables. Int J Food Sci Technol 2002; 37:153â€“161.
52. Md Nur Alam., Nusrat Jahan Bristi., Md Rafiquzzaman. Review on in vivo and in vitro methods evaluation of antioxidant activity. Saudi Pharm J 2013; 21:143â€“152.
53. Mohadjerani M. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Nerium oleander L. Grown in North of Iran. Iran J Pharm Res 2012; 11(4):1121-6.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.