RISK FACTOR ASSESSMENT FOR ACNE VULGARIS IN HUMAN AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH INTERVENTIONS IN NORTH CENTRAL INDIA: A SURVEY-BASED STUDY

  • Afifa Qidwai University of Allahabad
  • Manisha Pandey University of Allahabad
  • Shashi Kant Shukla University of Allahabad
  • Anand Pandey University of Allahabad
  • Rajesh Kumar University of Allahabad
  • Anupam Dikshit University of Allahabad

Abstract

Background: Acne vulgaris is a very common dermatological problem of adolescence since the time immemorial. However, it is neither life threatening nor is a physical disability, but acne affects social and psychological functioning. Acne vulgaris is multifactorial, apart from basic factor of hormonal change and bacterial outbreak; there are several other factors that may influence the prevalence of acne.

Methods: In the present study, populations were assessed for influence of various factors on acne prevalence. This cross-sectional study was a population based field study intending to discern the factors that influence the prevalence of acne in adolescents. The study carried out from April 2016 to October 2016 in north central India. For this survey, questionnaires were design to cover all the required information regarding occurrence of acne that include factors like gender, age, skin type, complexion, season of occurrence, dietary habit etc.

Results: Acne vulgaris appears to be influenced by gender, age, seasonal variations, breakout area, complexion, skin types and dietary habits. Further, the influence of dietary habit on acne, by the consumption of dairy products or high-carbon diet has also been evaluated. Apart from depicting the vulnerable range of age (p=0.003288), sensitivity on various skin types (p=0.00039) and complexion (p=0.001355) on the basis of gender; This Field study on Acne Vulgaris, also reveals that the season has inordinate role in acne pervasiveness (p=0.115731).

Conclusion: This study is helpful in categorizing the risk factors and evidencing the afflictions of acne in population thus, contributing health care planning. 

 

Keywords: Acne, Prevalence, Risk factors, Post management.

References

1. Ghodsi SZ, Orawa H, Zouboulis CC. Prevalence, severity, and severity risk factors of acne in high school pupils: A community-based study. J Invest Dermatol 2009;129(9):2136-41.
2. Balkrishnan R, Kulkarni AS, Cayce K, Feldman SR. Predictors of healthcare outcomes and costs related to medication use in patients with acne in the United States. Cutis 2006;77(4):251-5.
3. Adityan B, Thappa DM. Profile of acne vulgaris – a hospital-based study from South India. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2009;75(3):272-8.
4. Hanisah A, Omar K, Shah SA. Prevalence of acne and its impact on the quality of life in school-aged adolescents in Malaysia. J Prim Health Care 2009;1(1):20-5.
5. Simpson NB, Cunliffe WJ. Disorders of sebaceous glands. In: Burns T, Breathnach S, Cox N, Griffiths C, editors. Rooks Textbook of Dermatology. 7th ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing; 2004. p. 43.143.75.
6. Gelmetti CC, Krowchuk DP, Lucky AW. Acne. In: Schachner LA, Katz SI, editors. Pediatric Dermatology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Mosby; 2003. p. 589-609.
7. Burton JL, Cunliffe WJ, Stafford I, Shuster S. The prevalence of acne vulgaris in adolescence. Br J Dermatol 1971;85(2):119-26.
8. Killkenny M, Merlin K, Plunkett A, Marks R. The prevalence of common skin conditions in Australian school students: 3. acne vulgaris. Br J Dermatol 1998;139(5):840-5.
9. Zaenglein AL, Graber EM, Thiboutot DM, Strauss JS. Acne vulgaris and acneiform eruptions. Fitzpatricks Dermatology in General Medicine. 7th ed. New York: McGraw Hill Publishing; 2008. p. 690-703.
10. Cheesbrough MD. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries Part 2. UK: Cambridge University Press; 2000.
11. Foster-Powell K, Holt SH, Brand-Miller JC. International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76(1):5-56.
12. Daniel F, Dreno B, Poli F, Auffret N, Beylot C, Bodokh I, et al. Descriptive epidemiological study of acne on scholar pupils in France during autumn 1996. Ann Dermatol Venereol 2000;127(3):273-8.
13. Freyre EA, Rebaza RM, Sami DA, Lozada CP. The prevalence of facial acne in Peruvian adolescents and its relation to their ethnicity. J Adolesc Health 1998;22(6):480-4.
14. Tsoy N. The influence of dietary habits on acne. World J Med Sci 2013;8(3):212-6. Available from: https://www.idosi.org/wjms/8(3)13/8.pdf.
15. Ali-Shtayeh MS, Yaniv Z, Mahajna J. Ethnobotanical survey in the Palestinian area: A classification of the healing potential of medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;73(1-2):221-32.
16. Farhat SD, Shubhangi W, Mamta J, Pande G. Development of herbal anti acne gel and its evaluation against acne causing bacteria Propionibacteriam acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm 2013;4(5):781-6. Available from: http://www.ijrap.net/admin/php/uploads/1111_pdf.pdf.
17. Balijepalli MK, Buru AS, Sakirolla R, Pichika MR. Cinnamomumgenus: A review on its biological activities. 2016;9(2):1-11. Available from: http://www.innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/11156/9561.
18. Zadra M, Piana M, Augusti A, Boligon AA, Brum TF, Rossato L, et al. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial and antimycobacterial activities of Solanum guaraniticum A. St.-Hil. Leaves. J Appl Pharm Sci 2013;3(9):19-23.
19. Viyoch J, Pisutthanan N, Faikreua A, Nupangta K, Wangtorpol K, Ngokkuen J. Evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of Thai basil oils and their micro-emulsion formulas against Propionibacterium
acnes. Int J Cosmet Sci 2006;28(2):125-33.
20. Akujobi CN, Ofodeme CN, Enweani CA. Determination of antibacterial activity of (paw- paw) extracts Carica papaya. Niger J Clin Pract 2010;13(1):55-7. Available from: http://www.ajol.info › Journal Home › Vol 13, No 1 (2010).
21. Qidwai A, Pandey M, Shukla SK, Kumar R, Pandey A, Dikshit A. Antibacterial activity of Mentha piperita and Citrus limetta against Propionibacterium acnes (Anaerobic bacteria). Int J Pharm Sci Res 2016;7(7):2917-24.
22. Okechukwu RI, Onyedineke NE, Mgbemena IC, Opara FN, Ukaoma AA. Inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms by ethnobotanical extracts of fruit peels of Musa paradisiaca. J Appl Pharm Sci 2012;2(4):1-3. Available from: http://www.japsonline.com/admin/php/uploads/418_pdf.pdf.
23. Agaoglu S, Suleyman AJ. Investigation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of Aloe vera juice. J Anim Vet Adv 2009;8(I):99-102.
24. Douaouya L, Bouzerna N. Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on biochemical parameters and histopathology of pancreas of Alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8. Available from: https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/viewFile/11378/5134.
25. Aktan S, Ozmen E, Sanli B. Anxiety, depression, and nature of acne vulgaris in adolescents. Int J Dermatol 2000;39(5):354-7.
26. Waqar A, Nik NA, Sabzali M. Socio demographic characteristics of acne among university students in Damascus, Syria. Epidemiol Res Int 2014;10:4. Available from: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/eri/2014/974019/abs/.
27. Doni SN, Murgia V, Beraldo M, Shibeshi D. A mobile community dermatologic clinic in Ankober Woreda, central Ethiopia. Community Dermatol J 2013;8:1-12.
28. Bogino EA, Kebede MG, Kahsay AB. Acne at Ayder referral hospital among patients attending dermatologic clinic, Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia. Sci J Clin Med 2014;3:129-34. Available from: http://www.article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/…/10.11648.j.sjcm.20140306.16.pdf.
29. Perkins AC, Maglione J, Hillebrand GG, Miyamoto K, Kimball AB. Acne vulgaris in women: Prevalence across the life span. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2012;21(2):223-30.
30. Samanthula H, Kodali M. Acne and quality of life - A study from a tertiary care centre in South India. IOSR J Dent Med Sci 2013;6(3):59-62. Available from: http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jdms/papers/Vol6-issue3/O0965962.pdf.
31. Al-Ameer AM, Al-Akloby OM. Demographic features and seasonal variations in patients with acne vulgaris in Saudi Arabia: A hospital-based study. Int J Dermatol 2002;41(12):870-1.
32. Amado JM, Matos ME, Abreu AM, Loureiro L, Oliveira J, Verde A, et al. The prevalence of acne in the north of Portugal. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2006;20(10):1287-95.
33. Tasoula E, Gregoriou S, Chalikias J, Lazarou D, Danopoulou I, Katsambas A, et al. The impact of acne vulgaris on quality of life and psychic health in young adolescents in Greece. Results of a population survey. An Bras Dermatol 2012;87(6):862-9.
34. Bagatin E, Timpano DL, Guadanhim LR, Nogueira VM, Terzian LR, Steiner D, et al. Acne vulgaris: Prevalence and clinical forms in adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil. An Bras Dermatol 2014;89(3):428-35.
35. Rademaker M, Garioch JJ, Simpson NB. Acne in schoolchildren: No longer a concern for dermatologists. BMJ 1989;298(6682):1217-9.
36. ???
37. Smithard A, Glazebrook C, Williams HC. Acne prevalence, knowledge about acne and psychological morbidity in mid-adolescence: A community-based study. Br J Dermatol 2001;145(2):274-9.
38. Yeung CK, Teo LH, Xiang LH, Chan HH. A community-based epidemiological study of acne vulgaris in Hong Kong adolescents. Acta Derm Venereol 2002;82(2):104-7.
39. Purvis D, Robinson E, Watson P. Acne prevalence in secondary school students and their perceived difficulty in accessing acne treatment. N Z Med J 2004;117(1200):U1018.
40. Amado JM, Matos ME, Abreu AM, Loureiro L, Oliveira J, Verde A, et al. The prevalence of acne in the north of Portugal. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2006;20(10):1287-95.
41. Tan HH, Tan AW, Barkham T, Yan XY, Zhu M. Community-based study of acne vulgaris in adolescents in Singapore. Br J Dermatol 2007;157(3):547-51.
42. Nijsten T, Rombouts S, Lambert J. Acne is prevalent but use of its treatments is infrequent among adolescents from the general population. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2007;21(2):163-8.
43. Uslu G, Sendur N, Uslu M, Savk E, Karaman G, Eskin M. Acne: Prevalence, perceptions and effects on psychological health among adolescents in Aydin, Turkey. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2008;22(4):462-9.
44. Husain Y. Acne vulgaris in Nigerian adolescents’ prevalence, severity, beliefs, perceptions, and practices. Int J Dermatol 2009;48:498-505.
45. Ismail NH, Manaf ZA, Azizan NZ. High glycemic load diet, milk and ice cream consumption are related to acne vulgaris in Malaysian young adults: A case control study. BMC Dermatol 2012;12:13.
46. Stathakis V, Kilkenny M, Marks R. Descriptive epidemiology of acne vulgaris in the community. Australas J Dermatol 1997;38(3):115-23.
47. Suh DH, Shin JW, Min SU, Lee DH, Yoon MY, Kim NI, et al. Treatment-seeking behaviors and related epidemiological features in Korean acne patients. J Korean Med Sci 2008;23(6):969-74.
48. Krowchuk DP. Managing acne in adolescents. Pediatr Clin North Am 2000;47(4):841-57.
49. Tallab TM. Beliefs, perceptions and psychological impact of acne vulgaris among patients in the Assir region of Saudi Arabia. West Afr J Med 2004;23(1):85-7.
50. Lucky AW, Biro FM, Simbartl LA, Morrison JA, Sorg NW. Predictors of severity of acne vulgaris in young adolescent girls: Results of a five-year longitudinal study. J Pediatr 1997;130(1):30-9.
51. Granstein RD. Ultraviolet radiation effects on immunologic function. Reg Immunol 1990;3(2):112-9.
52. Middleton JD, Allen BM. The influence of temperature and humidity on stratum corneum and its relation to skin chapping. J Soc Cosmet Chem 1973;24:239-43.
53. Diffey BL, Larkö O. Clinical climatology. Photodermatol 1984;1(1):30-7.
54. Plowing G, Kligman AM. Acne. Morphogenesis and Treatment. Berlin: Springer; 1975. p. 295-6.
55. Sardana K, Sharma RC, Sarkar R. Seasonal variation in acne vulgaris – Myth or reality. J Dermatol 2002;29(8):484-8.
56. Anderson PC. Foods as the cause of acne. Am Fam Physician 1971;3(3):102-3.
57. Danby FW. Nutrition and acne. Clin Dermatol 2010;28(6):598-604.
58. Smith RN, Mann NJ, Braue A, Mäkeläinen H, Varigos GA. The effect of a high-protein, low glycemic-load diet versus a conventional, high glycemic-load diet on biochemical parameters associated with acne vulgaris: A randomized, investigator-masked, controlled trial. J Am Acad Dermatol 2007;57(2):247-56.
59. Sunay D, Baykir M, Ates G, Eksioglu M. Alexithymia and acne vulgaris: A case control study. Psychiatry Investig 2011;8(4):327-33.
60. Lee KW, Kim YJ, Lee HJ, Lee CY. Cocoa has more phenolic phytochemicals and a higher antioxidant capacity than teas and red wine. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51(25):7292-5.
61. Pietta PG. Flavonoids as antioxidants. J Nat Prod 2000;63:1035-42.
62. Tsoy N. The influence of dietary habits on acne. World J Med Sci 2013;8(3):212-6. Available from: https://www.idosi.org/wjms/8(3)13/8.pdf.
63. Rajeswari A. Evaluation of phytochemical constituents, quantitative analysis and antimicrobial efficacy of potential herbs against selected microbes. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015;8(2):232-7. Available from: http://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ajpcr/article/view/4036/2166.
64. Balijepalli MK, Buru AS, Sakirolla R, Pichika MR. Cinnamomumgenus: A review on its biological activities. 2016;9(2):1-11. Available from: http://www.innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/11156/9561.
Statistics
541 Views | 489 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
Qidwai, A., M. Pandey, S. K. Shukla, A. Pandey, R. Kumar, and A. Dikshit. “RISK FACTOR ASSESSMENT FOR ACNE VULGARIS IN HUMAN AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH INTERVENTIONS IN NORTH CENTRAL INDIA: A SURVEY-BASED STUDY”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 10, no. 5, May 2017, pp. 404-10, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i5.17265.
Section
Original Article(s)