POLYMER GRAFTING AND APPLICATIONS IN PHARMACEUTICAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS - A BRIEF REVIEW


Mahesh S Sakhare, Hrishikesh H Rajput

Abstract


 

 Selection of proper polymer system is a critical step involved in the formulation of dosage form. Type of polymer/s incorporated in pharmaceutical formulation majorly decides the stability of formulation and drug itself, mechanism, and rate of drug release. Pharmaceutical and biological therapeutics are suffered from disadvantages such as short half-lives, poor bioavailability, and physical and chemical instability. Delivery of drugs to target site at a specific concentration for a specific time can be successfully achieved by the use of suitable polymer/s. Thus, it is not necessary that available polymer till the date should have all ideal properties with respect to above. This makes a demand of tailored polymers with desired features and introduces concept of grafting for making new polymers to be used in dosage forms. Grafting can be achieved by various techniques described herein and can be analyzed by various modern analytical techniques including infrared, NMR, X-ray diffractometer, and differential scanning calorimeter. These grafted polymers offer many applications in terms of site drug/biological carrying capacity, tailored physicochemical properties based dosage form modifications and with desired features, and also to deliver therapeutics at specific sites. Considering these advantages, a number of applications of grafted polymers developed and many patents were filed in this area till the date. This review highlights the basic concept of grafting and its various techniques and their significant pharmaceutical applications.


Keywords


Polymer grafting, Pharmaceutical formulation, Drug delivery, Grafting techniques, Analytical techniques, Patents

| PDF |

References


Priya James H, John R, Alex A, Anoop KR. Smart polymers for the controlled delivery of drugs - A concise overview. Acta Pharm Sin B 2014;4(2):120-7.

Bashir A, Warsi MH, Sharma PK. An overview of natural gums as pharmaceutical excipient : Their chemical modification. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;5(4):2025-39.

Acta A, Ogaji IJ, Nep EI, Audu-Peter JD. Advances in natural polymers as pharmaceutical excipients. Pharmaceutica 2012;3(1):1-16.

Bhattacharya A, Misra BN. Grafting : A versatile means to modify polymers techniques, factors and applications. Prog Polym Sci 2004;29:767-814.

Alves NM, Mano JF. Chitosan derivatives obtained by chemical modifications for biomedical and environmental applications. Int J Biol Macromol 2008;43:401-14.

Xie W, Xu P, Wang W, Liu Q. Preparation and antibacterial activity of a water-soluble chitosan derivative. Carbohydr Polym 2002;50(1):35-40.

Hosseinzadeh H. Chemical modification of sodium hyaluronate via graft copolymerization of acrylic acid using ammonium persulfate. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2012;3(1):756-61.

Yoshikawa S, Takayama T, Tsubokawa N. Grafting reaction of living polymer cations with amino groups on chitosan powder. Appl Polym Sci 1997;68:1883-9.

Szwarc M. Living polymers. Their discovery, characterization, and properties. Polym Sci Part A Polym Chem 1997;36:9-15.

Lizotte JR, Long TE. Stable free-radical polymerization of styrene in combination with 2-vinylnaphthalene initiation. Macromol Chem Phys 2003;4(204):570-6.

Mishra V, Kumar R. Living radical polymerization : A review. J Sci Res 2012;56:141-76.

Sonmez HB, Senkal BF, Sherrington DC, Bıcak N. Atom transfer radical graft polymerization of acrylamide from N-chlorosulfonamidated polystyrene resin, and use of the resin in selective mercury removal. React Funct Polym 2003;55:1-8.

Arslan H. Block and graft copolymerization by controlled/living radical polymerization methods. InTechOpen 2012;13:279-320.

Liu Z, Xu Z. Surface modification of polypropylene microfiltration membranes by graft polymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone surface modification of polypropylene microfiltration membranes by graft polymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone. Eur Polym J 2004;40:2077-87.

Chen T, Kumar G, Harris MT, Smith PJ, Payne GF. Enzymatic grafting of hexyloxyphenol onto chitosan to alter surface and rheological properties. Biotechnol Bio Eng 2000;70(5):564-73.

Yamaguchi T. Preparation of pervaporation membranes for removal of dissolved organics from water by plasma-graft filling polymerization. J Memb Sci 1994;95(94):39-49.

Kim YJ, Kang IK, Huh MW, Yoon SC. Surface characterization and in vitro blood compatibility of poly(Ethylene terephthalate) immobilized with insulin and/or heparin using plasma glow discharge. Biomaterials 2000;21(2):121-30.

Contreras-garcía A, Bucio E, Concheiro A, Alvarez-lorenzo C, Bucio E, Concheiro A, Contreras-garcı A. J Bioact Compat Polym 2011;26(4):405-19.

Thi T, Thuc H, Quoc N. Pre-irradiation grafting of acrylonitrile onto chitin for adsorption of arsenic in water. Rad Phys Chem 2015;106:235-41.

Sinch DK, Ray AR. Graft copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate onto chitosan films and their blood compatibility. J Appl Polym Sci 1994;53:1115-21.

Sah SK, Tiwari AK, Bairwa R, Bishnoi N. Natural gums emphasized grafting technique: Applications and perspectives in floating drug delivery system. Asian J Pharm 2016;10(2):72-83.

Dailey LA, Wittmar M, Kissel T. The role of branched polyesters and their modifications in the development of modern drug delivery vehicles. J Control Release 2005;101(1-3):137-49.

Jung T, Kamm W, Breitenbach A, Hungerer KD, Hundt E, Kissel T. Tetanus toxoid loaded nanoparticles from sulfobutylated poly(Vinyl alcohol)-graft-poly(Lactide-co-glycolide): Evaluation of antibody response after oral and nasal application in mice. Pharm Res 2001;18(3):352-60.

Ms ME, Am O, Ma W, Tm T, Ms AB, Sa I. Novel smart pH sensitive chitosan grafted alginate hydrogel microcapsules for oral protein delivery: I. Preparation and characterization. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7(10):320-6.

Cai H, Pu Z, Chuan P, Lin B, Xia X. Synthesis and characterization of thermo-and pH-sensitive hydrogels based on chitosan-grafted N-isopropylacrylamide via G-radiation. Rad Phys Chem 2005;74:26-30.

Hu Y, Jiang X, Ding Y, Ge H, Yuan Y, Yang C. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan-poly(Acrylic acid) nanoparticles. Biomaterials 2002;23(15):3193-201.

Kumar R, Sharma K. Biodegradable polymethacrylic acid grafted psyllium for controlled drug delivery systems. Front Chem Sci Eng 2013;7(1):116-22.

Vihola H, Laukkanen A, Tenhu H, Hirvonen J. Drug release characteristics of physically cross-linked thermosensitive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) hydrogel particles. J Pharm Sci 2008;97(11):4783-93.

Pistel KF, Breitenbach A, Zange-volland R, Kissel T. Brush-like branched biodegradable polyesters, Part III protein release from microspheres of poly (Vinyl alcohol)-graft-poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid). J Control Release 2001;73:7-20.

Kulkarni RV, Sa B. Evaluation of pH-sensitivity and drug release characteristics of (Polyacrylamide-grafted-xanthan)-carboxymethyl cellulose-based pH-sensitive interpenetrating network hydrogel beads. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2008;34(12):1406-14.

Patil SA. Evaluation and controlled release characteristics of modified xanthan films for transdermal delivery of atenolol. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2007;33:79-90.

Siraj S, Sudhakar P, Rao US, Sekharnath KV, Rao KC, Subha MC. Interpenetrating polymer network microspheres of poly (Vinyl alcohol)/ methyl cellulose for controlled release studies of 6-thioguanine. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6(9):101-6.

Kumbar SG, Soppimath KS, Aminabhavi TM. Synthesis and characterization of polyacrylamide-grafted chitosan hydrogel microspheres for the controlled release of indomethacin. J Appl Polym Sci 2002;87:1525-36.

Yoshioka H, Nonaka K, Fukuda K, Kazama S. Chitosan-derived polymer-surfactants and their micellar properties. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1995;59(10):1901-4.

Liu WE, Yao KD, Liu QG. Formation of a DNA/N-dodecylated chitosan complex and salt-induced gene delivery. J Appl Polym Sci 2001;82:3391-5.

Nam JP, Lee KJ, Choi JW, Yun CO, Nah JW. Targeting delivery of tocopherol and doxorubicin grafted-chitosan polymeric micelles for cancer therapy: In vitro and in vivo evaluation. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2015;133;254-62.

Available from: https://www.google.co.in/patents/US20040208931.

Available from: https://www.google.ch/patents/US7419685.

Available from: https://www.google.com/patents/WO2004060298 A2?cl=ar.

Available from: http://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2007115381 A2?cl=und.




About this article

Title

POLYMER GRAFTING AND APPLICATIONS IN PHARMACEUTICAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS - A BRIEF REVIEW

Keywords

Polymer grafting, Pharmaceutical formulation, Drug delivery, Grafting techniques, Analytical techniques, Patents

DOI

10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i6.18072

Date

01-06-2017

Additional Links

Manuscript Submission

Journal

Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
Vol 10 Issue 6 June 2017 Page: 59-63

Print ISSN

0974-2441

Online ISSN

2455-3891

Statistics

169 Views | 223 Downloads

Authors & Affiliations

Mahesh S Sakhare
Department of Pharmaceutics, Government College of Pharmacy, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India.
India

Hrishikesh H Rajput
Department of Pharmaceutics, Government College of Pharmacy, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India.
India


Article Tools


Email this article (Login required)
Email the author (Login required)

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.