LOCALLY CARRAGEENAN TESTED FOR ITS FOOD GRADE BY FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION METHOD


Wiwiek Indriyati, Yoppi Iskandar, Wildan Fawzi Burhanuddin, Resmi Mustarcihie

Abstract


 

 Objective: This study aims to determine whether seagrass lalamakan (Dictyota dichotoma), ades (Gelidium sp.), agar (Gracilaria sp.), and saribuhu (Sargassum sp.) obtained from the Sindangkerta beach, Tasikmalaya, can produce carrageenan food grade according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Food Chemical Codex (FCC), and European Economic Community (EEC).

Methods: Seaweed was extracted with distilled water and 0.1N KOH at high temperature (90°C). The extract was tested for its characteristics such as solubility test, test sulfate, gel formation, and its infrared (IR) spectrum.

Results: The yield obtained from solvent extraction with distilled water ranged from 21% to 27%, whereas for 0.1N KOH solvent between 10% and 11% by weight. The results of the study indicated that the fiber obtained from both extractions was carrageenan, as shown by the results of the solubility test, the formation of gel and the infrared spectrum showed a sulfate ester, 3,6-anhydrogalactose, galactose-4-sulfate, and 3,6-anhydrogalactose-2- sulfate which was characteristic of carrageenan. IR spectrum confirmed the availability of carrageenan. Results of the sulfate test content in all sample fibers using either distilled water or 0.1N KOH were below 15.0%.

Conclusion: These results indicated that the generated carrageenan did not meet food grade standards set by the FAO, FCC, and EEC which was 15- 40%. However, in fact, the carrageenan from the Sindangkerta beach has been produced and marketed in the local market.


Keywords


Seaweed, Carrageenan, Extraction, Infrared spectrophotometer, Distilled water, KOH.

| PDF |

References


D’Amelio FS. Botanicals: A Phytocosmetic Desk Reference. New York: CRC Press; 1991. p. 9.

Anggadiredja JT, Achmad ZH, Istini S. Seaweed (Rumput Laut). Jakarta: Penebar Swadaya; 2007. p. 6-21.

Garg AK, Negi LM, Chauhan M. Gel containing ethosomal vesicles for transdermal delivery of aceclofenac. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2010;2(2):102-8.

Fitrya F. Inspection characteristics crude algae Padina Australis hauck. Sci Res J 2010;13(3):C13309.

Bhattacharjee S, Paul S, Dutta S, Chaudhuri TK. Anti-inflammatory and protective properties of Aloe vera leaf crude gel in carrageenan-induced acute inflammatory rat models. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6(9):368-71.

Stanley N. Production, Properties and Uses of Carrageenan, Production and Utilization of Products from Commercial Seaweeds, FAO Corporate Document Repository. Ch. 3. Available from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5822e/x5822e05.htm. [Last downloaded on 2016 Mar 04].

Laaboudi W, Ghanam J, Aissam H, Merzouki M, Benlemlih M. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of olive tree extract. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8(7):414-9.

Akrim D. The seaweed business development in Indonesia. J Shipping Ocean Eng 2014;4:198-202.

Indriani H, Suminarsih E. Seaweed (Cultivation, Processing and Marketing (Rumput Laut (Budi Daya, Pengolahan dan Pemasaran). Jakarta: Penebar Swadaya; 2003. p. 4-8, 11-2.

Evacuasiany E, Kartadarma E, Atmawidjaja S. PROSIDING Seminar Nasional Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia XXVII (Utilization of Seaweed Type Eucheuma sp. As Antirheumatic and Degenerative Bones). Jakarta: Puslitbang Kimia Terapan LIPI; 2001. p. 1-2.

Aslan L. Budidaya Rumput Laut. Edisi Revisi. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius; 1998. p. 23-4.

Winarno FG. Seaweed Processing Technology (Teknologi Pengolahan Rumput Laut). Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan; 1996. p. 120-5.

Arfah H. Manufacture of semi-refined carrageenan (SRC) and the diversification of seaweed products as high-fiber foods. Bull Penelitiandan Pengembangan 2015;13(1):121-31.

JECFA. FAO JECFA Monographs 4. Rome: FAO; 2007.

Sulistyaningsih R. Extraction and Characterization of Carrageenan from Seaweed Eucheuma spinosum from Madura Sumenep Regional Aquaculture (Ekstraksi dan Karakterisasi Karagenan Dari Rumput Laut Euchema spinosum Hasil Budidaya Daerah Sumenep Madura. Surabaya). Thesis. Indonesia: Institut Teknologi Surabaya (ITS); 2006.

Diharmi A, Fardiaz D, Andarwulan N, Heruwati ES. Carrageenan characteristics result isolation Eucheuma spinosum (red algae) from Sumenep Madura Waters. J Perikanan dan Kelautan 2011;16(1):117-24.

Atmadja WS, Kadi A, Sulistidjo S, Rachmaniar R. The Introduction of Seaweed Types (Pengenalan Jenis - Jenis Rumput Laut). Jakarta: Puslitbang Oseanologi LIPI; 1996.

Depkes RI. Parameter Standar Umum Ekstrak Tumbuhan Obat. Jakarta: Departemen Kesehtan RI; 2000. p. 10-1.

Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods. Translated by Kosasih Padmawinataand Iwang Soediro. Bandung: Penerbit ITB; 1987. p. 102-3.

Oviantari MV, Parwata IP. Optimizing product semi refined carrageenan euchema cottoni varying mechanical drying and moisture content raw materials. J Penelitian Pengembangan Sains Humaniora 2007;1(1):62-71.

Manuhara GJ, Praseptiangga D, Riyanto RA. Extraction and characterization of refined k-carrageenan of red algae [Kappaphycus alvarezii (doty ex P.C. Silva, 1996)] originated from Karimun Jawa Islands. Aquat Proc 2016;7:106-11.

Webber V, de Carvalho SM, Ogliari PJ, Hayashi L, Barreto PL. Optimization of the extraction of carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii using response surface methodology. Ciênc Tecnol Aliment Camp 2012;32(4):812-8.

Mustapha S, Chandar H, Abidin ZZ, Saghravani R, Harun MY. Production of semi-refined carrageenan from Eucheuma cottonii. J Sci Ind Res 2011;70:865-70.

Distantina S, Fadillah F, Rochmadi R, Fahrurrozi M, Wiratni W. Extraction Process From Carrageenan Eucheuma cottonii (Proses Ekstraksi Dari Karagenan Eucheuma cottonii). Seminar Rekayasa Kimia dan Proses 4-5 Agustus, 2010. Indonesia: Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik UNDIP; 2010.

Yasita D, Rachmawati ID. Optimization of the Extraction Process in the Manufacture of Carrageenan from Seaweed Eucheuma cottonii to Achieve Food Grade (Optimasi Proses Ekstraksi Pada Pembuatan Karaginan Dari Rumput Laut Eucheuma cottonii Untuk Mencapai Foodgrade). Available from: https://www.core.ac.uk/download/pdf/11704403.pdf. [Last download on 2016 Mar 4].

Mishra PC, Jayasankar R, Seema C. Yield and quality of carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii subjected to different physical and chemical treatments. Seaweed Res Utiln 2006;28(1):113-7.

Dewi NC, Darmanto YS, Ambariyanto A. Charcterization and quality of semirefined carrageenan (SCR) products from different coastal waters based on Fourier transform infrared technique. J Coast Dev 2012;16(1):25-31.

Pancomulyo T, Maryani H, Kristiani L. Seaweed Cultivation and Processing (Budidaya dan Pengolahan Rumput Laut). Surabaya: Agro Media Pustaka; 2006. p. 34-8.

Kordi M, Ghufran H. Success Tips Seaweed Cultivation at Sea and Tambak. Yogyakarta: Andi; 2011. p. 30-5.

Volery P, Besson R, Schaffer-Lequart C. Characterization of commercial carrageenans by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using single-reflection attenuated total reflection. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52(25):7457-63.




About this article

Title

LOCALLY CARRAGEENAN TESTED FOR ITS FOOD GRADE BY FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION METHOD

Keywords

Seaweed, Carrageenan, Extraction, Infrared spectrophotometer, Distilled water, KOH.

DOI

10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i8.18590

Date

01-08-2017

Additional Links

Manuscript Submission

Journal

Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
Vol 10 Issue 8 August 2017 Page: 121-124

Print ISSN

0974-2441

Online ISSN

2455-3891

Statistics

42 Views | 113 Downloads

Authors & Affiliations

Wiwiek Indriyati
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia.
Indonesia

Yoppi Iskandar
Departmentof Biological Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia.
Indonesia

Wildan Fawzi Burhanuddin
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia.
Indonesia

Resmi Mustarcihie
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia.
Indonesia


Article Tools


Email this article (Login required)
Email the author (Login required)

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.