• Resmi Mustarichie Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran
  • Wiwiek Indriyati Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia.
  • Riajawan Riokogro Department of Physiology, Saveetha College of Nursing, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India



 Objective: This study aims to determine whether there are lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) metals caused by the dilution of color on a locally illustrated plate.

Methods: Illustrated ceramic plates soaked for ½, 1, and 2 hrs in acidic solution were then measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer to the availability of Pb and Cd.

Results: The results showed that in the three samples of locally made illustrated ceramic plates gave contamination of Pb and Cd. The highest Pb content of metal contamination at the time of ½ hr immersion in the sample plate of the brand B was equal to 1.2539 ppm. At the time of 1 hr immersion in the sample plate of the brand, C was equal to 0.7737 ppm. The highest Cd content of metal contamination at the time of ½ hr immersion in the sample plate of the brand B was 0.2690.

Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the locally made illustrated plate could cause pollution of Pb and Cd. These results suggested caution in the use of decorated ceramic plates, especially, for acidic foods and the need for further research for various brands of ceramic plates display in the market.

Keywords: Illustrated plate, Acidic food, Lead, Cadmium, Heavy metal contamination, Atomic absorption spectrophotometer.


1. Verbiest P. Lead and Cadmium in Paints Pose Threat to Health; 2012. Available from: [Last accessed on 2016 Mar 13].
2. Anonim. Available from: [Last accessed on 2016 Mar 13].
3. Anonim. Toxicity of Paint Pigments. Available from: [Last accessed on 2016 Mar 13].
4. Ganiswarna S. Pharmacology and Therapy (Farmakologi dan Terapi). IVth ed. Jakarta: Bagian Farmakologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia; 1995. p. 271-88, 800-10.
5. Wyasu G, Onoja E, Omeiza FS. Comparative analysis of the level of lead and cadmium contamination of food during processing with atlas machine and a local grinding stone. Arch Appl Sci Res 2010;2(5):331-6.
6. Garg C, Khan SA, Ansari SH, Garg M. Efficacy and safety studies of Foeniculum vulgare through evaluation of toxicological and standardization parameters. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2010;2(2):43-5.
7. Prakash NK, Deepa S, Sripriya N, Bhuvaneswari S. Quality assessment for the presence of heavy metals in herbal materials from the markets of Chennai, India. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6(8):574-8.
8. Filov UA. Harmful Chemical Substances. Vol. 1. New York: Ellis Harwood; 1993. p. 555.
9. Jaishankar M, Tseten T, Anbalagan N, Mathew BB, Beeregowda KN. Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdiscip Toxicol 2014;7(2):60-72.
10. Efsa (European Food Safety Authority). Metals as Contaminants in Food; 2015. Available from: [Last accessed on 2016 Apr 04].
11. Landrigan PJ, Schechter CB, Lipton JM, Fahs MC, Schwartz J. Environmental pollutants and disease in American children: Estimates of morbidity, mortality, and costs for lead poisoning, asthma, cancer, and developmental disabilities. Environ Health Perspect 2002;110(7):721-8.
12. Alissa EM, Ferns GA. Heavy metal poisoning and cardiovascular disease. J Toxicol 2011;2011:21.
13. Sharma B, Singh S, Siddiqi NJ. Biomedical implications of heavy metals induced imbalances in redox systems. Biomed Res Int 2014;2014:26.
14. Lau OW, Li KL. The determination of lead and cadmium in paint by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry utilizing the delves micro-sampling technique. Analyst 1975;100:430-7.
15. Adarna LN, Castañares JM. Copper, lead and zinc contamination. In: Sediments of Butanone River, Cebu, Philippines, Book of Abstracts of 30th Philippine Chemistry Congress. ASEAN Chemistry in Resonance. Ateneo de Davao University, April, 15-17; 2015. p. 60.
16. Villar C, Stripeikis J, Colautti D, D’Huicque L, Tudino M, Bonetto C, et al. Metals contents in two fishes of different feeding behavior in the lower Parana river and Rio de la Plata estuary. Hydrobiologia 2001;457:225-33.
17. Ewing GW. Instrumental Method of Chemical Analysis. New York: Kogakusha, McGraw-Hill, ltd.; 1969. p. 58, 69-70.
18. Ibrahim S. Statistical and validation and its application. Prosiding Temu Ilmiah Nasional Bidang Farmasi Jurusan Fammasi ITB. Vol. I. Bandung: School of Pharmacy, ITB; 1997.
19. Puspita AD, Melannisa R, Suhendi A. Determination of Pb and Cd in sediment and Ipomoea aquatic in surrounding of Bengawan solo river in industrial area of Karanganyar. Pharmacon 2010;11(2):39-42.
20. Mulyani S, Train IG, Sujana A. Identification metal contamination Pb and Cd in kale (Ipomoea aquatic) planted in the area of city of Denpasar. J Bumi Lestari 2012;12(2):345-9.
21. Irawanto R, Damayanti A, Tangahu BV, Purwanti IF. Concentration of heavy metals (Pb and Cd) section aquatic plants Coix lacryma-jobi(jali). In: National Seminar on Conservation and Utilization of Natural Resources; 2015. p. 138-46.
22. Priandoko DC, Parwanayoni NM, Sundra IK. Content of heavy metal (Pb and Cd) on green mustard (Brassica few l. Subsp. Perviridis bailey) and carrot (Daucus Carrota L. Var. Sativa Hoffm) outstanding in the market city Denpasar. J Symbiosis 2013;1(1):9-20.
23. Pratiwi AR, Willian N, Promo A. Analysis of Heavy Metal Content (Pb) and (Cd) to Seagrasses (Enhalus acoroides) as a Bio Indicator Waters in Tanjung Pinang. Available from: [Last accessed on 2016 Mar 24].
24. Raras DP, Yusuf D, Alimuddin A. Content Analysis of Heavy Metal Ion (Fe, Cd, Cu, and Pb) in Crops Apu-Apu (Pistia stratiotes L) Using Time Variation. Samarinda, Indonesia: Prosiding Seminar Tugas Akhir FMIPA UNMUL; 2015. p. 76-9.
363 Views | 478 Downloads
How to Cite
Mustarichie, R., W. Indriyati, and R. Riokogro. “ANALYSIS OF HEAVY METALS (LEAD AND CADMIUM) CONTAINED ON THE ILLUSTRATED CERAMIC PLATE BY ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETER”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 10, no. 8, Aug. 2017, pp. 125-8, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i8.18591.
Original Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)