• Raman Preet Department of Botany, Punjabi University, Patiala - 147 002, Punjab, India
  • Raghbir Chand Gupta Department of Botany, Punjabi University, Patiala - 147 002, Punjab, India
  • Saroj Kumar Pradhan Department of Botany, Punjabi University, Patiala - 147 002, Punjab, India


Physalis angulata L. is an important medicinal plant, commonly known by different names such as mullaca, wintercherry, camapu, cutleaf, and
referred as pilu,†by local tribal people of Rajasthan. This plant species is distributed from temperate to tropical region of the world. Traditionally, it
has anticancerous, antimycobacterial, and anticoagulant properties. The juice is used in the treatment of earache, jaundice, fever, gonorrhea bladder
diseases, etc., cytological exploration of the species from Rajasthan revels the existence of two cytotypes diploid (2n=12) and tetraploid (2n=24). This
study is undertaken to identify the total mineral content of both the cytotypes from different plant parts, i.e., fruit, leaf, stem, and roots by wavelength dispersion X-ray fluorescence technique which is a simple method, recognized as a nondestructive technique to determine the elements from the raw plant material without any chemical treatment and helps to ascertain the nutritional role. The analysis of mineral content led to the identification and concentration analysis of twenty-seven elements in diploid cytotype and twenty-five in tetraploid cytotype. The percentage value of potassium (5.52%); iron (0.50%) and selenium (0.0042%) is reported to be higher in diploid cytotype and the amount of calcium (2.15%); magnesium (0.75%) and zinc (0.0075%) are higher in tetraploid cytotype. The amount of most of the minerals is higher in tetraploid cytotype as compared to the diploid cytotype. This information is very helpful in standardization of herbal products as this plant species is widely used for its medicinal benefits.

Keywords: Wavelength dispersion X-ray fluorescence, Medicinal plant, Physalis angulata L, Elemental analysis.


1. Bodeker G, Kronenberg F. A public health agenda for traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine. Am J Public Health 2002;92:1582-91.
2. Marscher H. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 1995. p. 889.
3. Salamon I, Hecl J, Haban M. Heavy metal determination of several medicinal plants in the central Zemplin. In: World Conference on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 8-11 July 2001, Budapest, Hungary. Poster PII/47; 2001. p. 187.
4. Ražić S, Dogo S, Slavković L. Investigation on bioavailability of some essential and toxic elements in medicinal herbs. J Nat Med 2008;62:761-7.
5. Ražić S, Onjia A, Dogo S, Slavković L, Popović A. Determination of metal content in some herbal drugs-empirical and chemo-metric approach. Talanata 2005a;67:233-9.
6. Glew RH, Ayaz FA, Vanderjagt DJ, Millson M, Dris R, Niskanen R. A research note mineral composition of medlar (Mespilus germanica) fruit at different stages of maturity. N M J Food Qual 2003;26:441-7.
7. Queralt I, Ovejero M, Carvalho MJ, Marques AF, Llabres JM. Quantitative determination of essential and trace element content of medicinal plants and their infusions by XRF and ICP techniques. X Ray Spectrom 2005;34:213-7.
8. Ražić S, Slavković L, Popović A. Inorganic analysis of herbal drugs. Part I. Metal determination in herbal drugs originating from medicinal plants of family Lamiaceae. J Serbian Chem Soc 2005b;70:1347-55.
9. Chizzola R. Metallic mineral element and heavy metals in medicinal plants. Med Aromatic Plant Sci Biotechnol 2011;6:39-53.
10. Swamy GY, Sivanarayanan P. Quantitative determination of essential and trace elements in Indian ayurveda medicinal herbs by WD-XRF spectrometry. Int J Ayurveda Pharm Chem 2014;1:52-62.
11. Al-Bataina BA, Maslat AO, Al-Kofahi MM. Element analysis and biological studies on ten oriental spices using XRF and Ames test. J Trace Elem Med Biol 2003;17:85-90.
12. Salvadora MJ, Lopes GN, Filho VJ, Zucchi O. Nascimento quality control of commercial tea by X-ray fluorescence. X Ray Spectrom 2002;31:141-4.
13. Perring L, Andrey D. ED-RF as a tool for rapid minerals control in milk-based products. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:4207-12.
14. Margui E, Hidalgo M, Queralt I. Multielemental fast analysis of vegetation samples by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry: Possibilities and drawbacks. Spectrochim Acta 2005;60:1363-72.
15. Gallaher RN, Gallaher K, Marshall AJ, Marshall AC. Mineral analysis of ten types of commercially available teas. J Food Compos Anal 2006;19:S53-7.
16. Noda T, Tsuda S, Mori M, Takigawa S, Matsuura-Endo C, Hashimoto N, et al. Determination of the phosphorous content in potato starch using an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence method. Food Chem 2006;95:632-7.
17. Krishna AK, Mohan KR, Dasaram B, Murthy NN, Sudarshan V. A qualitative application in quantitative determination of major and trace elements in plant species using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Atomic Spectrosc 2009;30:208-17.
18. Jabeen S, Shah MT, Khan S, Hayat MQ. Determination of major and trace elements in ten important folk therapeutic plants of Haripur basin, Pakistan. J Med Plant Res 2010;4:559-66.
19. Aliero AA, Usman H. Leaves of ground cherry (Physalis angulata L.) may be suitable in alleviating micronutrient deficiency. Food Sci Technol 2016;4(5):89-94.
20. Ptyakowska K, Kita A, Janoska P, Polowniak M, Kozik V. Multi-element analysis of mineral and trace elements in medicinal herbs and their infusions. Food Chem 2012;135:494-501.
21. Berkov S. Size and alkaloid content of seeds in induced autotetraploids of Datura innoxia, Datura stramonium. Pharm Biol 2001;40:617-21.
22. Evans S. Changing the knowledge base of Western herbal medicine. Soc Sci Med 2008;67(12):2098-106.
23. Wohlmuth H, Leach DN, Smith KK, Myers SP. Gingerol content of diploid and tetraploid clones of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.). J Agric Food Chem 2005;53(14):5772-3.
24. Hull-Sanders HM, Johnson RH, Owen HA, Meyer GA. Effects of polyploidy on secondary chemistry, physiology, and performance of native and invasive genotypes of Solidago gigantean (Asteraceae). Am J Bot 2009;96(4):762-70.
25. Cabrera C, Lloris F, Gimenez R, Olalla MM, Lopez C. Mineral content in legumes and nuts: Contribution to the Spanish dietary intake. Sci
Total Environ 2003;308:1-14.
26. Ayaz1 F, Torun H, Ayaz1 S, Correia P, Alaiz M, Sanz C, et al. Determination of chemical composition of anatolian carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua): Sugars, amino and organic acids, minerals and phenolic compounds. J Food Qual 2007;30:1040-55.
27. Amellal-Chibane H, Benamara S. Total contents of major minerals in the nature yoghurt and in the yoghurts with the date powder of three dry varieties. Am J Food Nutr 2011;1(2):74-8.
28. Knödler M, Lorenz P, Schulz M, Meyer U, Stinzing F. Analysis of toxic heavy metals in selected essential oils. In: VI. Conference on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Berlin 19-22 September. Berlin: Humboldt University; 2011. p. 62-3.
29. Özcan M. Mineral content of some plants used as condiments in Turkey. Food Chem 2004;84:437-40.
30. Perring L, Andrey D. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence measurements on organic matrices: Application to milk-based products. X Ray Spectrom 2004;33:128-35.
31. Souci SW, Fachmann W, Kraut H. Food composition and nutrition tables. In: Munchen GB, editor. Deutsche Forschungsanstalt Fur Lebensmittelchemie. 6th ed. Stuttgart, Germany, Boca Raton, London, New York, Washington, DC: Medpharm Scientific Publishing, CRC Press; 2000. p. 681-2.
32. WHO. Expert Committee on Specification for Pharmaceuticals Preparation. WHO Technical report Series no. 823, Report 32. Geneva: WHO; 1992. p. 44-52, 75-6.
545 Views | 405 Downloads
How to Cite
Preet, R., R. C. Gupta, and S. K. Pradhan. “ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS AND BIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF PHYSALIS ANGULATA L. USING WAVE LENGTH-DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE TECHNIQUE, WAVELENGTH DISPERSION X-RAY FLUORESCENCE, FROM RAJASTHAN”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 10, no. 8, Aug. 2017, pp. 220-4, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i8.18650.
Original Article(s)