PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STANDARDIZATION OF RHIZOMES OF NUPHAR LUTEUM
Objective: This study provides the detailed summary of pharmacognostical characters of rhizomes to give clear standards for the identification ofdrug.
Methods: Important details such as macroscopy, microscopy (transverse section [TS] and powder microscopy) along with physico-chemicalparameters (such as loss on drying, ash values, and extractive values), and quantitative studies (i.e foreign matter, length and width of xylem vesselsand calcium oxalate crystals, and diameter of starch grains) were performed by standard procedure.
Results: The findings of macroscopic studies revealed that the rhizomes were internally creamish to light brown and dark brown externally withlongitudinal wrinkles. TS and powder microscopy of rhizomes showed the presence of fragments of cork, cellulosic parenchyma; scalariform typexylem vessels, fragments of ligneous parenchyma, lignified astrosclereids, and small ovoid, and rounded starch grains. The mean length and meanwidth of xylem vessels and calcium oxalate crystals were found to be 406 Î¼m (micrometer) and 60.2 Î¼m and 63.36 Î¼m and 48.96 Î¼m. Whereas meandiameter of starch grains was 34.56 Î¼. Physicochemical standards quantified were foreign organic matter (0.2%), total ash (12.3%), acid insolubleash (6.3%), water soluble ash (3%), loss on drying (12.5%), alcohol-soluble extractive value (32.6%), and water soluble extractive value (27.6%).
Conclusion: As various pharmacognostical and physico-chemical parameters have pivotal roles in authentication, identification and establishmentsof quality parameters of the plant. This study was conducted for this purpose.
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