ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF SYZYGIUM AROMATICUM SILVER NANOPARTICLES: IN VITRO AND IN SILICO STUDY
Â Objective: In the present study, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) silver nanoparticles (clove AgNPâ€™s) was evaluated.
Methods: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique was used to identify the compounds present in the aqueous extract of clove. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis was done to characterize the clove silver AgNPâ€™s. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was performed to evaluate the antioxidant property of nanoparticles (0.05 and 0.25 mg/ml) and aqueous extracts (0.05, 0.1, and 0.25 mg/ml) of clove. The anti-inflammatory property of the clove AgNPâ€™s was determined by inhibition of protein denaturation and downregulation of interleukin-1 beta. In silico molecular docking studies was performed using Schrodinger Maestro software.
Results: Eugenol was found to be highest with 16.27%. The AgNPâ€™s exhibited dose-dependent antioxidant property. AgNPâ€™s scavenged 80% of radical at the concentration of 0.25 mg/ml. The scavenging activity of AgNPâ€™s markedly increased when compared to aqueous extract at the same concentration. Inhibition of protein denaturation assay also revealed AgNPâ€™s showing the highest activity (66%) when compared with drug aspirin (55%) and aqueous extract (56%). In the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, AgNPâ€™s showed better inhibition (80%) when compared to aqueous extract (60%). Among 15 compounds, two compounds (eugenol and methyl 14-methylpentadecanoate) showed good glide energy, docking score, and hydrogen-bonded active site interactions with the protein interleukin-1 beta.
Conclusion: As AgNPâ€™s were more active than the aqueous extract, it may be considered for pharmacological activity against inflammatory disorders.
2. Pan SY, Zhou SF, Gao SH, Yu ZL, Zhang SF, Tang MK, et al. New perspectives on how to discover drugs from herbal medicines: CAMâ€™s outstanding contribution to modern therapeutics. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013;2013:627375.
3. Revathy SS, Murugesan M. Potentcy of kara sooda sathu parpam, a herbo mineral siddha drug in the managemnet of kalladaippu noi (Urolithiasis): A drug review. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm 2014;5(3):372-9.
4. Charusheela R, Tapan C, Bijaya KS, Ram-Avatar P. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from the aqueous extract of leaves of Ocimum sanctum for enchanced antibacterial activity. J Chem 2013;2013:1-7.
5. CortÃ©s-Rojas DF, de Souza CR, Oliveira WP. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): A precious spice. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2014;4(2):90-6.
6. Miguel MG. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils: A short review. Molecules 2010;15(12):9252-87.
7. Nagappan R. Evaluation of aqueous and ethanol extract of bioactive medicinal plant, Cassia didymobotrya (Fresenius) Irwin and Barneby against immature stages of filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus say (Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2(9):707-11.
8. Mary EJ, Inbathamizh L. Green synthesis and characterization of nano silver using leaf extract of Morinda pubescens. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012;5(1):159-62.
9. Praba PS, Vasantha VS, Jeyasundari J, Brightson Y, Arul J. Synthesis of plant-medicated silver nanoparticles using Ficus microcarpa leaf extract and evaluation of their antibacterial activities. Eur Chem Bull 2015;4(3):117-20.
10. Tagashira M, Ohtake Y. A new antioxidant 1, 3-benzodioxle from Melissa officinalis. Planta Med 1998;64:555-8.
11. Rakesh W, Saranya S, Gurukarthikeyan, Kumar RP, Mari SS, Gayathri D, et al. Chitosan gallic acid microsphere incorporated collagen matrix for chronic wounds: Biophysical and Biochemical characterization. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6(6):94-100.
12. Farid R, Day T, Friesner RA, Pearlstein RA. New insights about HERG blockade obtained from protein modeling, potential energy mapping, and docking studies. Bioorg Med Chem 2006;14(9):3160-73.
13. Kim S, Thiessen PA, Bolton EE, Chen J, Fu G, Gindulyte A, et al. Pub chem substance and compound databases. Nucleic Acids Res 2016;44(D1):D1202-3.
14. Quillin ML, Wingfield PT, Matthews BW. Determination of solvent content in cavities in IL-1beta using experimentally phased electron density. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006;103(52):19749-53.
15. Deepa M, Renuka D. Potential anti-inflammatory medicinal plants-a review. Int J Pharm PharmSci 2014;6(4):43-9.
16. Husen A, Siddiqi KS. Phytosynthesis of nanoparticles: Concept, controversy and application. Nanoscale Res Lett 2014;9(1):229.
17. Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, Chandra N. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharmacogn Rev 2010;4(8):118-26.
18. Leelaprakash G, Dass SM. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Enicostemma axillare. Int J Drug Dev Res 2011;3(3):189-6.