DETERMINATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPONENTS OF CARALLUMA UMBELLATA HAW. (APOCYNACEAE) BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY AND MASS SPECTROSCOPY ANALYSIS
Keywords:Caralluma, Bioactive compound, Betulin, Nil, Nil
Objective: The aim of this study was to carry out Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy (GCâ€“MS) studies and to determine the bioactive compounds of Caralluma umbellata whole plant extract.
Methods: Whole plant of C. umbellata was cleaned, shade dried, and pulverized to powder in a mechanical grinder. Required quantity of powder sample was weighed and transferred to stoppered flask separately and treated with ethanol until the powder is fully immersed. The flask was shaken every hour for the first 6 h and then it was kept aside and again shaken after 24 h. This process was repeated for 3 days and then the extracts were filtered. The extracts were collected and evaporated to dryness using vacuum distillation unit.
Results: A total of 29 components of C. umbellata whole plant were identified. The prevailing components in the ethanol extract of whole plant were betulin (16.11%), campesterol (11.69%), 5Î±-Ergost-8(14)-ene (10.16%), 5-androsten-17Î±-ethynyl-3Î², 17Î²-diol (9.06%), Î²-sitosterol (8.17%), cholestane-3,7,12,25-tetrol, tetraacetate (3Î±,5Î²,7Î±,12Î±) (7.94%), Î²-amyrin (7.02%), stigmasterol (6.78%), 13,16-octadecadiynoic acid, methyl ester (3.53%), lanosterol (3.51%), trans-geranylgeraniol (3.25%), Vitamin E (2.90%) and retinol, acetate (2.81%).
Conclusion: The application of C. umbellata for various ailments is confirmed by the presence of various bioactive compounds by traditional practitioners.
Steinmetz KA, Potter JD. Vegetables, fruits cancer prevention. A review. J Am Dietetic Assoc 1996;96:1027-39.
Das M, Himaja M. Phytochemical screening, GC-MS analysis and biological activities of Ipomoea eriocarpa leaf extracts. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:592-4.
Uma B, Prabhakar K, Rajendran S. In vitro antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of Ficus religiosa and Ficus bengalensis L. Against diarrhoeal enteroxigenic E. coli. Ethnobot Leaflets 2009;13:472-4.
Balaji K, Kilimozhi D. GC-MS analysis of various extracts of Clerodendrum phlomidis Leaf. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:226-32.
Sharma P, Kaushik S, Jain A, Sikarwar SM. Preliminary phytochemical screening and HPTLC finger printing of Nicotiana tobaccum leaf. J Pharm Res 2010;3:1144-5.
Balamurugan K, Nishanthini A, Mohan VR. GC-MS analysis of Polycarpaea corymbosa (L.) Lam. Whole plant. Asian Acade J Trop Biomed 2012;2:SI269-92.
Kumar SS, Samydurai P, Ramakrishnan R, Nagarajan N. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of bioactive constituents of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:60-3.
Muthulakshmi A, Margret RJ, Mohan VR. Antiinflammatory activity of ethanol extracts of leaf and bark of Feronia elephantum Correa. J Curr Chem Pharm Sci 2012;2:266-70.
Sattar EA. Antiplasmodial and antitrypanosomal activity of plants from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. J Nat Med 2009;63:232-9.
De Leo M, De Tommasi N, Sanogo R. New pregnane glycosides from Caralluma dalzielii. Steroids 2005;70:573-85.
Oyama M, Iliya I, Tanaka T, Iinuma M. Five new steroidal glycosides from Caralluma dalzielii. Helv Chim Acta 2007;90:63-71.
Bader A, Braca A, de Tommasi N, Morelli I. Further constituents from Caralluma negevensis. Phytochemistry 2003;62:1277-81.
Rauf A. Phytochemical, phytotoxic and antioxidant profile of Caralluma tuberculata N. E. Brown. Wudpecker J Pharm Pharmacol 2013;2:21-5.
Balamurugan K, Nishanthini A, Lalitharani S, Mohan VR. GC-MS determination of bioactive components of Melastoma malabathricum L. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2012;4:24-6.
Muthulakshmi A, Margret JR, Mohan VR. GC-MS analysis of bioactive components of Feronia elephantium Correa (Rutaceae). J Appl Pharm Sci 2012;2:69-74.
Gabay O, Sanchez C, Salvat C, Chevy F, Breton M, Nourissat G, et al. Stigmasterol: A phytosterol with potential anti-osteoarthritic properties. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2010;18:106-16.
Panda S, Jafri M, Kar A, Meheta BK. Thyroid inhibitory, antiperoxidative and hypoglycemic effects of stigmasterol isolated from butea monosperma. Fitoterapia 2009;80:123-6.
Bell EF. History of Vitamin E in infant nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 1987;46:183-6.
Muller DP. Vitamin E and neurological function, review. Mol Nut Food Res 2010;54:710-8.
Ellie W, Rolfes SR, Williams P, editors. Understanding Nutrition. 12th ed. California: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning; 2011.
Sesso HD, Buring JE, Christen WG, Kurth T, Belanger C, MacFadyen J, et al. Vitamins E and C in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in men: The physiciansâ€™ health study II randomized trial. J Am Med Assoc 2008;18:2123-33.
Zheng Y, Huang W, Yoo J, Ebersole JL, Huang CB. Antibacterial compounds from Siraitia grasvenorii leaves. Nat Prod Res 2011;25:890-7.
Arunkumar S, Muthuselvam M. Analysis of phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activities of Aloe vera L. against clinical pathogens. World J Agric Sci 2009;5:572-6.
Kumar PP, Kumaravel S, Lalitha C. Screening of antioxidant activity, total phenolics and GC-MS study of Vitex negundo. Am J Biochem Res 2010;4:191-5.
Grace OM, Light ME, Lindsey KL, Moholland DA, Staden JV, Jader AK. Antibacterial activity and isolation of antibacterial compounds from fruit of the traditional African medicinal plant Kigelia africana. S Afr J Bot 2002;68:220-2.
Sharafzadeh S, Khosh-Khui M, Javidnia K. Aroma profile of leaf and stem of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) grown under green house conditions. Adv Envirion Biol 2011;5:547-50.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.