CHEMICAL HAZARDS IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY: AN OVERVIEW
Â The pharmaceutical industry is a vital component of health-care systems all over the world engaged in discovery, development, manufacture, and marketing of medicines for human as well as animal health. Pharmaceutical industries also have many environmental problems, like the other chemical industries. The pharmaceutical industry is based primarily on the scientific formulation, research, and development of drugs, that is, helpful in the prevention or treatment of diseases and disorders. The manufacturing of APIs and formulation processes involves the use of various chemicals which includes various corrosive and irritant agents such as acids, bases, oxidizing and reducing agents, solvents, and many more which can be found sometimes at very high concentrations and are hazardous to health of persons performing the various processes during manufacturing and formulation of API and medicines. The effective management of the chemical risks linked to the handling of these agents is mandatory for the safety of the workers in the industry, ethically and also legally as per the rules and guidelines of various acts regulating the functioning of the pharma industry. This article provides a comprehensive review of various chemical hazards generally encountered by the pharmaceutical industry, its management and regulation in India.
2. Shabaninejad H, Madani H, Amineh ZA, Doostzadeh E. A framework for evaluation of pharmaceutical industry development in developing countries: Evidence from Iran. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:50-4. Available from: https://www.innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ajpcr/article/view/10099/7527. [Last cited on 2017 Nov 11].
3. Gupta AK, Nair SS. Chemical (industrial) Disaster Management, Trainerâ€™s Module. New Delhi: National Institute of Disaster Management (Ministry of Home Affairs); 2012. Available from: http://www.nidm.gov.in/PDF/modules/chemical.pdf. [Last cited on 2017 Oct 11].
4. Subrahmanyam CV. Pharmaceutical Production and Management. 1st ed. Delhi: Vallabh Prakashan; 2015.
5. Hazard Guidelines-Hazardous Material Spill. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Division of Public Safety and Security; 2011. Available from: http://www.dpss.umich.edu/docs/HazardGuidelines-HazardousMaterialSpill.pdf. [Last cited on 2017 Oct 11].
6. Pisaniello D, Tepe S. Chemical Hazards. In: HaSPA (Health and Safety Professionals Alliance), The Core Body of Knowledge for Generalist OHS Professionals. Australia: Safety Institute of Australia Ltd; 2012. Available from: http://www.ohsbok.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/17-Hazard-Chemical.pdf?x71776. [Last cited on 2017 Oct 11].
7. Canadian Centre for Occupational and Health Safety. Canada: Canadian Centre for Occupational and Health Safety (CA). Available from: https://www.ccohs.ca/products/posters/pdfs/chemical.pdf. [Last modified on 2016 Nov 30; Last cited on 2017 Oct 11].
8. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (WOSH Specialist Training Supplemental Module). Washington, DC (US): United States Department of Labor. Available from: https://www.osha.gov/dte/grant_materials/fy11/sh-22240-11/ChemicalHazards.pdf. [Last cited on 2017 Oct 11].
9. Reddy BV, Sandeep P, Navaneetha K, Ujwala P. Review on industrial hazards and its prevention. Int J Med Pharm Res 2014;2:492-502. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/B_Reddy7/publication/275518968_Pulsatile_Drug_Delivery_System-A_Review/links/553e22cc0cf294deef6fba29/Pulsatile-Drug-Delivery-System-A-Review.pdf. [Last cited on 2017 Oct 11].
10. Watrous RM. Health Hazards of the Pharmaceutical Industry. Br J Ind Med 1947;4:111-25. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1035910/pdf/brjindmed00258-0037.pdf. [Last cited on 2017 Oct 11]
11. Pruthu K. Organic Solvents-Health Hazards. J Chem Pharm Sci 2014; special issue 3:83-6. Available from: https://www.jchps.com/specialissues/Special%20issue3/17%20jchps%20si3%20k.pruthu%2083-86.pdf. [Last cited on 2017 Oct 11].
12. Chemical Engineering, IIT Bombay. Information on Carcinogenic Compounds. Mumbai (IN): Dept. of Chemical Engineering, IIT Bombay. Available from: http://www.che.iitb.ac.in/online/research/health-safety-and-environment-hse/hse-plan-a-guide-laboratory-hazards-and-practices/informa. [Last cited on 2017 Oct 11].
13. Pharmaceutical Industries: Industrial Hazards. India: Blogger (Awesome Inc.); 2011. Available from: http://www.pharmaindustries.blogspot.in/2011/07/industrial-hazards.html. [Last cited on 2017 Oct 11].
14. SMC: Sierra Monitor. California (USA): Sierra Monitor Corporation; 2017. Available from: http://www.sierramonitor.com/protect/hazardous-gas-flame/combustible-gas-detection. [Last cited on 2017 Oct 11].
15. Gas Risk Management-a Safer Approach to Monitoring for Hazardous Gases. California (USA): Sierra Monitor Corporation; Technical reprint TR002. Available from: http://www.sierramonitor.com/assets/bltb2ed9a415adbde79/SMC%20Technical%20Reprint%20-%20Gas%20Risk%20Management.PDF. [Last cited on 2017 Oct 11].
16. Sensidyne: Industrial Health and Safety Instrumentation. St. Petersburg (USA): Sensidyne, LP; c2017. Available from: https://www.sensidynegasdetection.com/support/application-support/oxygen-deficiency-gas-monitoring.php. [Last cited on 2017 Oct 11].
17. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (Safety and health topics). Washington, DC (US): United States Department of Labor. Available from: https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/hazardoustoxicsubstances/index.html. [Last cited on 2017 Oct 11].
18. Chemical Engineering, IIT Bombay. Chemical Hazard Control: Technical Measures. Mumbai (IN): Dept. of Chemical Engineering, IIT Bombay. Available from: http://www.che.iitb.ac.in/online/research/health-safety-and-environment-hse/hse-plan-a-guide-laboratory-hazards-and-practices/chemic-0. [Last cited on 2017 Oct 11].
19. Dikshith TS. Hazardous Chemicals: Safety Management and Global Regulations. Boca Raton, Florida (US): CRC Press (Taylor and Francis Group); c2013.
20. Balaji G, Potdar A, Unnikrishnan S. Environmental legislation for chemical management in India: An agenda. J Environ Res Dev 2014;9:494-506. Available from: https://www.google.co.in/url?s a=t&rct=j&q= &esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja &uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwi1o9P7o_LWAhVFvY 8KHWObAtUQFgg lMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2F www.jerad.org%2Fppapers%2Fdnload.php %3Fvl%3D9%26is%3D2%26st%3 D494&usg=AOvVaw19Ep1B IyXYIogsslQidkqi. [Last cited on 2017 Oct 11].
21. Bhandari M, Raj S. Practical approach to green chemistry. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:10-26. Available from: https://www.innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/15640/10173. [Last cited on 2017 Nov 11].
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.