ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF TINOCRISPOSIDE BY INHIBITING NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION IN LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES-STIMULATED RAW 264.7 CELLS
Â Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of tinocrisposide using lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Tinocrisposide is a furano diterpene glycoside that was isolated in our previous study from Tinospora crispa.
Methods: Anti-inflammatory effect was quantified spectrometrically using Griess method by measuring nitric oxide (NO) production after the addition of Griess reagent.
Results: The sample concentrations of 1, 5, 25, 50, and 100 Î¼M and 100 Î¼M of dexamethasone (positive control) have been tested against the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, and the results showed NO level production of 39.23, 34.00, 28.9, 20.25, 16.3, and 13.68 Î¼M, respectively, and the inhibition level of 22.67, 33.00, 43.03, 60.10, 68.00, and 73%, respectively.
Conclusions: From the study, it could be concluded that tinocrisposide was able to inhibit the formation of NO in the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells in concentration activity-dependent manner, with half-maximal inhibition concentration 46.92 Î¼M. It can be developed as anti-inflammatory candidate drug because NO is a reactive nitrogen species which is produced by NO synthase. The production of NO has been established as a mediator in inflammatory diseases.
2. Mohamad S, Zin NM, Wahab HA, Ibrahim P, Sulaiman SF, Zahariluddin AS, et al. Antituberculosis potential of some ethnobotanically selected Malaysian plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;133:1021-6.
3. Kongsaktrakoon B, Temsiririrkkul R, Suvitayavat W, Nakornchai S, Wongkrajang Y. The antipyretic effect of Tinospora crispa Mier ex. Hock F. and Thoms. J Pharm Sci 1994;21:1-6.
4. Sulaiman MR, Zakaria ZA, Lihan R. Antinociceptive and antiinflamatory activities of Tinospora crispa in various animal models. Int J Trop Med 2008;3:66-9.
5. Yokozawa T, Wang TS, Chen CP, Hattori M. Inhibition of nitric oxide release by an aqueous extract of Tinospora tuberculata. Phytother Res 2000;14:51-3.
6. Froemming GA. Antiproliferative and antioxidant effects of Tinospora crispa (Bratawali). Biomed Res 2011;22:57-62.
7. Zulkhairi A, Abdah MA, Kamal NH, Nursakinah I, Moklas MA, Hasnah B, et al. Biological properties of Tinospora crispa (Akar patawali) and its antiproliferative activities on selected human cancer cell lines. Malay J Nutr 2008;14:173-87.
8. Pachaly P, Adnan ZA. Tinocrisposid einneues furanoditepenglykosid aus Tinospora crispa Miers. Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 1992;325:705-8.
9. Adnan ZA, Pachaly P, Husni M, Almahdy A, Adrianti A. Pharmacological Assessment of The New Furanoditerpenglycoside, Tinocrisposide from Tinospora crispa. Halle, Germany: 43rd Annual Congress of The Society of Medicinal Plant Research; 1995.
10. Guo W, Sun J, Jiang L, Duan L, Huo M, Chen N, et al. Imperatorin attenuates LPS-induced inflammation by suppressing NF-Ä¸B and MAPKs activation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Inflammation 2012;35:1764-72.
11. Hong YH, Chao WW, Chen ML, Lin BF. Ethyl acetate extracts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) sprouts inhibit lipopolysaccharide induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. J Biomed Sci 2009;16:64-75.
12. Parham P. The immune system. Elements of the Immune Systems and their Roles in defense. Ch. 1. New York: Garland Publishing; 2000a.
13. Lee CJ, Chen LG, Liang WL, Wang CC. Anti-inflammatory effects of Punica granatum Linne in vitro and in vivo. Food Chem 2010;118:315-22.
14. Oâ€™Byrne KJ, Dalgleish AG. Chronic immune activation and inflammation as the cause of malignancy. Br J Cancer 2001;85:473-83.
15. Mequanint W, Makonnen E, Urga K. In vivo anti-inflammatory activities of leaf extracts of Ocimum lamiifolium in mice model. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;134:32-6.
16. He G, Karin M. NF-kappaB and STAT3â€“key players in liver inflammation and cancer. Cell Res 2011;21:159-68.
17. Guo W, Kong E, Meydani M. Dietary polyphenols, inflammation, and cancer. Nutr Cancer 2009;61:807-10.
18. Santangelo C, Rosaria V, Scazzocchio B, Benedetto RD, Filesi C, Masella R. Polyphenols, intracellular signalling and inflammation. Ann Ist Super Sanita 2007;43:394-405.
19. Vallabhapurapu S, Karin M. Regulation and function of NF-kappa B transcription factors in the immune system. Annu Rev Immunol 2009;27:693-733.
20. Bakkali F, Averbeck S, Averbeck D, Idaomar M. Biological effects of essential oils. Food Chem Toxicol 2008;46:446-75.
21. Serhan CN. System approach to inflammation resolution: Identification of novel anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving mediators. J Thromb Haemost 2009;7 Suppl 1:44-8.
22. Dalgleish AG, O`Byrne KJ. Chronic immune activation and inflammation in the pathogenesis of AIDS and cancer. Adv Cancer Res 2002;84:231-76.
23. Uma G, Balasubramaniam V, Kumar J. In-vivo screening of anti-inflammatory activity in methanolic extract of Corbichonia decumbens (Forsk.) using various animal models of paw oedema. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:146-8.
24. Soundarajan N, Mohan D, Abbu R, Devasena R. Evaluation of cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, nuclear changes and pro-inflamatory cytokines induced by monocrotophos in human keratinocytes cells in vitro. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:160-4.
25. Kusmardi K, Hermanto D, Estuningtyas A, Tedjo A, Priosoeryanto PB. The potency of Indonesiaâ€™s pomegranate peel ethanol extraxt (Punica granatum Linn) as anti-inflammatory agent in mice colon induced by dextran sodium sulfate: Focus on cyclooxygenase-2 and inos expressions. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;12:370-5.
26. Kurian KN, Nair PH, Bhat GS. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of Melamin from Marine bacillus spp. Btcz 31. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015;3:251-5.
27. Mosmann T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: Application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods 1983;65:55-63.
28. Lee HS, Ryu DS, Lee GS, Lee DS. Anti-inflammatory effects of dichloromethane fraction from Orostachys japonicus in RAW 264.7 cells: Suppression of NF-ÎºB activation and MAPK signaling. J Ethnopharmacol 2012;140:271-6.
29. Reddy AS, Abd Malek SN, Ibrahim H, Sim KS. Cytotoxic effect of Alpinia scabra (Blume) NÃ¡ves extracts on human breast and ovarian cancer cells. BMC complement Altern Med 2013;12:314.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.