CORRELATIONS OF DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID METHYLATION, HISTONE ACETYLATION, AND MICRORNA‑320 WITH SORBITOL DEHYDROGENASE IN DIABETIC RETINOPATHY
Objective: Prolonged and persistent hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) leads to a variety of vascular complications, including the retinal disorder of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The mechanism of fructose formation of sorbitol assisted by sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) causing the loss of pericytes in the blood vessel is affected by epigenetic work comprised of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, histone acetylation, and microRNA‑320. This study aimed to determine the correlation of DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and microRNA‑320 with SDH in DR.
Methods: This case–control study was conducted at a tertiary general hospital from July 2014 to June 2016. Study subjects were type 2 DM patients with and without DR, over 40 years old, suffered from DM for > 10 years. DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and microRNA‑320 were examined by real‑time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, while SDH level examination was carried out by enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay. Analyses were performed with independent t‑test, Mann–Whitney, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression.
Results: With respect to SDH, DNA methylation showed no significant correlation so as histone acetylation, in contrary to microRNA‑320 with a very strong negative correlation (r=−0.968, P < 0.005).
Conclusion: MicroRNA‑320 was correlated to SDH in a manner of protective properties against the occurrence of DR. Involvement of DNA methylation and histone acetylation was perceptible in influencing SDH enzyme despite their insignificance if they took place individually.
2. Reddy GB, Satyanarayana A, Balakrishna N, Ayyagari R, Padma M, Viswanath K, et al. Erythrocyte aldose reductase activity and sorbitol levels in diabetic retinopathy. Mol Vis 2008;14:593 601.
3. Varma R. Diabetic retinopathy: Challenges and future directions. Am J Ophthalmol 2006;141:539 41.
4. Wong TY, Klein R, Islam FM, Cotch MF, Folsom AR, Klein BE, et al. Diabetic retinopathy in a multi ethnic cohort in the United States. Am J Ophthalmol 2006;141:446 55.
5. Aslan D. Biomarkers for diabetes complications: The results of several clinical studies. J Med Biochem 2011;30:207 12.
6. Tarr JM, Kaul K, Chopra M, Kohner EM, Chibber R. Pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy. ISRN Ophthalmol 2013;2013:343560.
7. West SK, Munoz B, Klein R, Broman AT, Sanchez R, Rodriguez J, et al. Risk factors for Type II diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in a Mexican American population: Proyecto VER. Am J Ophthalmol 2002;134:390 8.
8. Klein R, Klein BE. The epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy. In: Ryan SJ, Schachat A, Wilkinson C, Hinton D, Sadda S, Wiedemann P, editors. Retina. 5th ed. Baltimore: Elsevier Mosby; 2012. p. 907 24.
9. Parvanova A, Iliev I, Filipponi M, Dimitrov BD, Vedovato M, Tiengo A, et al. Insulin resistance and proliferative retinopathy: A cross sectional, case control study in 115 patients with Type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:4371 6.
10. Aiello LM. Perspectives on diabetic retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 2003;136:122 35.
11. Soewondo P, Ferrario A, Tahapary DL. Challenges in diabetes management in Indonesia: A literature review. Global Health 2013;9:63.
12. Jain A, Varshney N, Smith C. The evolving treatment options for diabetic macular edema. Int J Inflam 2013;2013:689276.
13. de M Bandeira S, da Fonseca LJ, da S Guedes G, Rabelo LA, Goulart MO, Vasconcelos SM, et al. Oxidative stress as an underlying contributor in the development of chronic complications in diabetes mellitus. Int J Mol Sci 2013;14:3265 84.
14. Kowluru RA, Santos JM, Mishra M. Epigenetic modifications and diabetic retinopathy. Biomed Res Int 2013;2013:635284.
15. Li B, Carey M, Workman JL. The role of chromatin during transcription. Cell 2007;128:707 19.
16. Reddy MA, Zhang E, Natarajan R. Epigenetic mechanisms in diabetic complications and metabolic memory. Diabetologia 2015;58:443 55.
17. Berger SL, Kouzarides T, Shiekhattar R, Shilatifard A. An operational definition of epigenetics. Genes Dev 2009;23:781 3.
18. Miao F, Chen Z, Zhang L, Liu Z, Wu X, Yuan YC, et al. Profiles of epigenetic histone post translational modifications at Type 1 diabetes susceptible genes. J Biol Chem 2012;287:16335 45.
19. Kantharidis P, Wang B, Carew RM, Lan HY. Diabetes complications: The microRNA perspective. Diabetes 2011;60:1832 7.
20. Aly EM. FTIR analysis for retina associated with diabetic changes and treatment with oat. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:277 80.
21. Dongare S, Rajendran S, Senthilkumari S, Gupta SK, Mathur R, Saxena R, et al. Genistein alleviates high glucose induced toxicity and angiogenesis in cultured human RPE cells. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:294 8.
22. Preston GM, Calle RA. Elevated serum sorbitol and not fructose in Type 2 diabetic patients. Biomark Insights 2010;5:33 8.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.