FIRST DESCRIPTION OF ANTIBACTERIAL AND IN VITRO WOUND HEALING PROPERTIES OF COCOS NUCIFERA TOMENTUM
Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial, antioxidant, and in vitro wound healing property of Cocos nucifera tomentum.
Methods: Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of C. nucifera tomentum were prepared using the Soxhlet extraction method and aqueous extract was prepared by the shaker flask method. These extracts were investigated for the phytochemical profile by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-ToF MS), for antibacterial activity by microdilution method, for the antioxidant property by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, and for in vitro wound healing activity on cell lines.
Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and various bioactive components. GC-MS and LC-Q-ToF MS analysis of extracts revealed the presence of bioactive compounds known to have wound healing properties as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The methanolic extract had better antibacterial activity against Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli, and better antioxidant and wound healing activity, when compared to the ethanolic and aqueous extracts.
Conclusion: The present study suggests that C. nucifera tomentum might be a potential therapeutic source for topical antibacterial and wound healing applications.
2. Kumar B, Vijayakumar M, Govindarajan R, Pushpangadan P. Ethnopharmacological approaches to wound healing – exploring medicinal plants of India. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;114:103-13.
3. Lima EB, Sousa CN, Meneses LN, Ximenes NC, Santos Júnior MA, Vasconcelos GS, et al. Cocos nucifera (L.) (Arecaceae): A phytochemical and pharmacological review. Braz J Med Biol Res 2015;48:953-64.
4. DebMandal M, Mandal S. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Arecaceae): In health promotion and disease prevention. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2011;4:241-7.
5. Srivastava P, Durgaprasad S. Burn wound healing property of Cocos nucifera: An appraisal. Indian J Pharmacol 2008;40:144-6.
6. Loneza G, Odiem MM, Esther C. Powdered coconut shell charcoal: A potential alternative medicine for some identified ailments in soft tissues. An Interdisciplinary research. Int J Adv Res IT Eng 2013;2:61 9.
7. Zunairah A, Mohamad RS, Rosnani H. Evaluation of wound closure activity of Cocos nucifera oil on scratched monolayer of human dermal fibroblasts. Chem Eng Trans 2017;56:1657-62.
8. Latheef AK, Smitha PK, Remashree AB. Ethnomedicine used for treating cuts and wounds by the tribes of Attappady, Kerala. Int J Herb Med 2014;2:1-8.
9. Thomas B, Arumugam R, Veerasamy A, Ramamoorthy S. Ethnomedicinal plants used for the treatment of cuts and wounds by Kuruma tribes, Wayanadu districts of Kerala, India. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2014;4:S488-91.
10. Devendran G, Ganesan S. Phytochemical analysis of leaf extract of plant Costus spicatus By GC-MS method. J Drug Deliv Ther 2015;5:24-6.
11. Jayaveera KN, Yoganandham Reddy K, Govindarajula Y, Kumanan R. Phytochemical screenings, antibacterial activity and physico chemical constants of ethanolic extract of Euphorbia thymifolia linn. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2010;3:81.
12. Handa SS, Khanuja SP, Longa G, Rakesh DD. Extraction Technologies for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Italy, United Nations: Industrial Development Organization and the International Centre for Science and High Technology; 2008.
13. Harbone JB. Phytochemical Methods. London: Chapman & Hall; 1999. p. 60-6.
14. Lakshmi Hima Bindu MR, Parameswari AS, Gopinath C. A review on GC-MS and method development and validation. Int J Pharm Qual Assur 2013;4:42-51.
15. National Institute of Standards and Technology. NIST Standard Reference Database 1A. NIST Mass Spectral Search Program Version 2.0g. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology; 2011.
16. Willey/NIST. The Willey/NBS Registry of Mass Spectral Data. Mass Spectral Library version 2.0. 8th ed. New York: J. Willey and Sons, Inc., NIST/EPA/NIH; 2005.
17. Ferrer I, Thurman ME. Liquid Chromatography/time of flight/mass spectrometry (LC/TOF/MS) for the analysis of emerging contaminants. Trends Anal Chem 2003;22:750-6.
18. Chemspider from Royal Society of Chemistry. Cambridge. Available from: http://www.chemspider.com. [Last accessed on 2018 Jun 20].
19. Eloff JN. A sensitive and quick microplate method to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of plant extracts for bacteria. Planta Med 1998;64:711-3.
20. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disc Susceptibility Tests. Approved Standard CLSI Document. M100 S26. 27th ed. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; 2017.
21. Balouiri M, Sadiki M, Ibnsouda SK. Methods for in vitro evaluating antimicrobial activity: A review. J Pharm Anal 2016;6:71-9.
22. Braca A, De Tommasi N, Di Bari L, Pizza C, Politi M, Morelli I, et al. Antioxidant principles from Bauhinia tarapotensis. J Nat Prod 2001;64:892-5.
23. Udaya Prakash NK, Bhuvaneswari S, Sripriya N, Prameela L, Bhagya R, Radhika B, et al. Antioxidant activity of common plants of Northern Tamil Nadu, India. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:128-32.
24. Shabrina R, Elya B, Noviani A. Anti-oxidant activities of fractions from ethyl acetate extracts of farcinia fruticosa lauterb leaves. Int J Appl Pharm 2018;10:44-50.
25. Liang CC, Park AY, Guan JL. In vitro scratch assay: A convenient and inexpensive method for analysis of cell migration in vitro. Nat Protoc 2007;2:329-33.
26. Yogeswari S, Ramalakshmi S, Neelavathy R, Muthumary J. Identification and comparative studies of different volatile fractions from Monochaetia kansensis By GC-MS. Global J Pharm 2012;6:65 71.
27. Kalaivani KM, Jonnalgadda B, Arockiasamy S. GC-MS analysis of chloroform extract of Croton bonplandianum. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2013;4:613-7.
28. Sermakkan M, Thangapandian V. GC-MS analysis of Cassia Italic leaf methanol extract. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012;5:90-4.
29. Thomas E, Aneesh TP, Thomas DG, Anandhan R. GC-MS analysis of phytochemical compounds present in the rhizomes of Nervilia aragoana gaup. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013;6:68-74.
30. Dandekar R, Fegade B, Bhaskar VH. GC-MS analysis of phytochonstituents in alcohol extract of Epiphyllum oxypetalum leaves. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2015;4:149-54.
31. Patel J, Reddy V, Kumar Satyara GS, Bajari B. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy analysis of bioactive components on the leaf extract of Terminalia coriacea: A potential folklore medicinal plant. Int J Green Pharm 2017;11:S140.
32. Parasuraman S, Raveendran R, MadhavRao C. GC-MS analysis of leaf extracts of Cleistanthus collinus roxb: Euphorbiaceae. Int J Pharm Sci 2009;1:284-6.
33. Jenecius A, Mohan VR. GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds on the stem exatract of Bacolepsis nervosa decne. Ex.Moe (Periplocaceae). J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;3:1044-59.
34. Duke JA. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. 12.6 Beta. Vol. 9. Beltsville, Md.: ARS/USDA; 2018.
35. Pubchem from NCBI. Available from: http://www.pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. [Last accessed on 2018 Jun 20].
36. Narendhirakannan RT, Jesuthankaraj GN, Caroline A, Lincy S, Saj M, Durai D. Evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant and wound healing properties of seven traditional medicinal plants from India in experimental animals. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:s1245-53.
37. Durgaprasad B, Chandrakanth B, Babu R, Kumar PK, Sastry GV. Screening of wound healing activity of bark of Aleurites moluccana L. Int J Pharm Res Anal 2011;1:21-5.
38. Alanís AD, Calzada F, Cervantes JA, Torres J, Ceballos GM. Antibacterial properties of some plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;100:153-7.
39. Alleyne T, Roache S, Thomas C, Shirley A. The control of hypertension by use of coconut water and Mauby: Two tropical food drinks. West Indian Med J 2005;54:3-8.
40. Zakaria ZA, Reezal I, Mat Jais AM, Somchit MN, Sulaiman MR, Marmin AH, et al. The anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and wound healing activities of Cocos nucifera fresh juice and Kernal extract in experimental animals. J Pharmacol Toxicol 2006;1:516-26.
41. Obidoa O, Joshua EP, Nkechi EZ. Phytochemical analysis of Cocos nucifera L. J Pharm Res 2009;1:87-96.
42. Agyare C, Serwaa A, Agyepong DN, Boakye YD, Mensah KB, Ayande PG, et al. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and wound healing properties of Kigelia Africana (Lam) beneth and Strophanthus hispidus Dc. Adv Pharmacol Sci 2013;2013:1-10.
43. Cyric MB, Pai V, Shantaram M, Jose M. Anti-microbial properties of coconut husk aqueous extract on carcinogenic bacteria. Arch Med Res 2013;1:126-30.
44. Silalahi J, Permata YM, De Lux Putra E. Antibacterial Activity of hydrolyzed virgin coconut oil. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014;7:90-4.
45. Abbas AA, Assikong EB, Martins A, Peter U, Keneth TT. Antibacterial activity of coconut oil and its derivative (Lauric acid) on some selected clinical isolates. Int J Med Sci Clin Invent 2017;4:3173-7.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.