• THANH VAN NGUYEN Department of Veterinary Surgery and Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Trau Quy, Gia Lam, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • HAI THANH NGUYEN Department of Plant Bio-Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology, Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Trau Quy, Gia Lam, Hanoi, Vietnam.


Objective: Our study evaluated the inhibitory effects of 13 plant materials on bacterial growth, so as to explain their traditional uses in bacterial infections. In addition, the correlation between antibacterial effects of plants and the polyphenol contents or antioxidant activities was also verified to investigate if these properties were responsible for the plant antibacterial effects.

Methods: We tested extracts with 20 bacterial strains purchased from Japan Veterinary Products Association (JVPA, Tokyo, Japan) and also the Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Streptococcus suis (S. suis) strains that we had previously isolated from livestock. After polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities were measured, we examined their correlations with antibacterial effects.

Results: The results showed that all extracts exerted inhibitory effects on tested bacteria and at different levels. Among all of samples, betel and mother rhizome of turmeric showed the strongest effects and also exerted inhibition on antibiotic-resistant E. coli and S. suis bacteria. In addition, direct and significant correlations between antibacterial effects’ and polyphenol content’s values were established and thus demonstrating that antibacterial effects of plants were attributable, at least in part, to the presence of polyphenol compounds.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrated the antibacterial effects of 13 plant materials and, therefore, partly gives pharmacological basis to explain their traditional uses in diseases associated with bacterial infections. In addition, as betel and mother rhizome of turmeric showed the highest effects, we suggested that they might serve as the most promissory candidates for bacterial treatment. However, follow-up researches are still required to assess their potentials.

Keywords: Medicinal plant, Antibacterial effect, Polyphenol content, Antioxidant activity, Betel, Turmeric, Mother rhizome.


1. Rojas R, Bustamante B, Bauer J, Fernandez I, Alban J, Lock O. Antimicrobial activity of selected Peruvian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;88:199-204.
2. Mahesh B. Satish S. Antimicrobial activity of some important medicinal plant against plant and human pathogens. World J Agric Sci 2008;4:839-43.
3. Immanuel G, Vincybai VC, Sivaram V, Palavesam A, Marian MP. Effect of butanolic extracts from terrestrial herbs and seaweeds on the survival, growth and pathogen (Vibrio parahaemolyticus) load on shrimp Penaeus indicus juveniles. Aquaculture 2004;236:53-65.
4. Le VT, Nguyen GC. Selected Medicinal plants in Vietnam. Volume I, II 1999. Vietnam National Institute of Materia Medica Publications. Science and Technology Publishing house, Hanoi, Vietnam. (a): Artemisia vulgaris L. - Asteraceae. In: Le, V.T. and Nguyen, G.C. (eds.), Volume I, pp. 99-103. (b): Curcuma domestica Valet. - Zingiberaceae. In: Le, V.T. and Nguyen, G.C. (eds.), Volume I, pp. 263-268; 1999. (c): Paederia foetida L. - Rubiaceae. In: Le, V.T. and Nguyen, G.C. (eds.), Volume II, pp. 161-164. (d): Piper betle L. - Piperaceae. In: Le, V.T. and Nguyen, G.C. (eds.), Volume II, pp. 179-182. (e): Plantago major L. – Plantaginaceae. In: Le, V.T. and Nguyen, G.C. (eds.), Volume II, pp. 184-189. (f): Pluchea indica (L.) Less. - Asteraceae. In: Le, V.T. and Nguyen, G.C. (eds.), Volume II, pp. 189-192. (g): Wedelia calendulacea Less. - Asteraceae. In: Le, V.T. and Nguyen, G.C. (eds.), Volume II, pp. 357-361.
5. Do, T.L. Nhung cay thuoc va vi thuoc thuong dung tai Vietnam. [Book in Vietnamese]. Hanoi, Vietnam: Vietnam Medical Publishing House; 2005. (a): Cuc Tan. Pluchea indica. In: Do, T.L. (eds.), pp. 685-686. (b): Gung gio. Zingiber zerumbet. In: Do, T.L. (eds.), pp. 368-369. (c): Hung que. Ocimum basilicum L. var. basilicum. In: Do, T.L. (eds.), pp. 659-660. (d): Ma de. Plantago asiatica L. In: Do, T.L. (eds.), pp. 215-217. (e): Mo tam the. Paederia tomentosa L. In: Do, T.L. (eds.), pp. 186-187, 2005. (f): Ngai cuu. Artemisia vulgaris L. In: Do, T.L. (eds.), pp. 36-37. (g): Nghe. Curcuma longa L. In: Do, T.L. (eds.), pp. 227-230. (h): Rau Mui Tau. Eryngium foetidum L. In: Do, T.L. (eds.), pp. 687-688. (i): Sai dat. Wedelia calendulacea L. In: Do, T.L. (eds.), pp. 86-88. (j): Thia la. Anethum graveolens L. (Peucedanum graveolens Benth). In: Do, T.L. (eds.), pp. 422-423. (k): Trau khong. Piper betle L. In: Do, T.L. (eds.). pp: 118-119.
6. Balekar N, Nakpheng T, Srichana T. Wedelia trilobata L.: A phytochemical and pharmacological review. Chiang Mai J Sci 2014;41:590-605.
7. Shan B, Cai YZ. The in vitro antibacterial activity of dietary spice and medicine herb extracts. Int J Food Microbiol 2007;117:112-9.
8. Singh K, Tafida GM. Antibacterial activity of Moringa oleifera (Lam) leaves extracts against some selected bacteria. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:52-4.
9. Pandey KB, Rizvi SI. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2009;2:270-8.
10. Bui TT. Curcuma longa. [Document in Vietnamese]. In: Bui TT, editor. Phuong phap nghien cuu cay thuoc-Tai lieu tham khao cho cac nghien cuu thuc nghiem ve cay thuoc (luu hanh noi bo trong phong thi nghiem Duoc Ly Thu Y). Department of Internal Medicine and Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Hanoi, Vietnam: Vietnam National University of Agriculture; 2012. p. 18-9.
11. Japanese Society of Antimicrobials. Revision of the Determination Method of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of Antimicrobials Against Bacteria Isolated from Animals. The Committee for Standardization of MIC Determination Method. Vol. 25. In: Proceeding of the Japanese Society of Antimicrobials for Animals; 2003. p. 63-73.
12. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Approved standard M11-A2: Methods for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria. Villanova, PA: NCCLS; 1990.
13. Masuda T, Oyama Y, Inaba Y, Toi Y, Arata T, Takeda Y, et al. Antioxidant related activities of ethanol extracts from edible and medicinal plants cultivated in Okinawa, Japan 2002. Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi 2002;49:652-61.
14. Lawson LD. Garlic: A review of its medicinal effects and indicated active compounds. In: Lawson LD, Bauer R, editors. Phytomedicines of Europe: Their Chemistry and Biological Activity. Washington DC: ASC Press; 1996. p. 176-200.
15. Hong X, Lu L, Xu D. Progress in research on acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND). Aquaculture Int 2016;24:577-93.
16. Niamsa N, Sittiwet C. Antimicrobial activity of Curcuma longa aqueous extract. J Pharmacol Toxicol 2009;4:173-7.
17. Kanjwani DG, Marathe TP, Chiplunkar SV, Sathaye SS. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of Piper betel. Scand J Immunol 2008;67:589-93.
18. Malar HL, Charles PM. Effect of turmeric Curcuma longa Linn extract on immunity and resistance to Vibrio harveyi in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Int J Zool Res 2013;3:21-6.
19. Lagana C, Pizzolante CC, Saldanha ES, Moraes JE. Turmeric root and annato seed in second-cycle layer diets: Performance and egg quality. Rev Bras Ciênc Avíc 2011;13:171-6.
20. Rahardja DP, Hakim MR, Lestari VS. Egg production performance of old laying hen fed dietary turmeric powder. Int J Biol Biomol Agric Food Biotechnol Eng 2015;9:748-52.
21. Negi PS, Jayaprakasha GK, Rao LJ, Sakariah KK. Antibacterial activity of turmeric oil: A byproduct from curcumin manufacture. J Agric Food Chem 1999;47:4297-300.
22. Sivasankaridevi T, Rajan SA, Maina CC, Suvarna VC. Antimicrobial activity of some important edible leaf extracts. Insight Microbiol 2013;3:15-8.
23. Fu Z, Liu WA. Compound Propolis Composition for Treating Swine Streptococcicosis and Preparation Method Thereof. Patent CN No. 102430098; 2013.
24. Teow SY, Liew K, Ali SA, Khoo AS, Peh AC. Antibacterial action of curcumin against Staphylococcus aureus: A brief review. J Tropical Med 2016;2016:10.
25. Bell JM, Turnidge JD, Gales AC, Pfaller MA, Jones RN. Sentry APAC study group. Prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing clinical isolates in the Asia-Pacific region and South Africa: Regional results from SENTRY. Antimicrobial surveillance program (1998-9). Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2002;42:193-8.
26. Palmieri C, Varaldoand PE, Facinelli B. Streptococcus suis, an emerging drug-resistant animal and human pathogen. Front Microbiol 2011;2:235.
27. Da Silva LI, Karuppusamy A, Miyajima F, Violante IM, Bieski IG, Balogun SO, et al. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of selected plants used by populations from Juruena valley, legal amazon, Brazil. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:179-91.
28. Liu SC, Lin JT, Wang CK, Chen HY, Yang DJ. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from lychee (Litchi chinenesis Sonn.) flowers. Food Chem 2009;115:577-81.
29. Javanmardi J, Stushnoff C, Lockeb E, Vivancob JM. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Iranian Ocimum accessions. Food Chem 2003;83:547-50.
30. Ravipati AS, Zhang L, Koyyalamudi SR, Jeong SC, Reddy N, Bartlett J, et al. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of selected Chinese medicinal plants and their relation with antioxidant content. BMC Complement Altern Med 2012;12:173.
31. Chakraborty A, Mandal SM, Chakraborty J, Bhattacharyaa PK, Bandyopadhyay A, Mitra A, et al. Antimicrobial activities of leaf extract of Basilicum polystachyon (L) Moench. Ind J Exp Biol 2007;45:744-8.
32. Duda-Chodak A, Tarko T, Statek M. The effect of antioxidants on Lactobacillus casei cultures. Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment 2008;7:39 51.
33. Sharma V, Rao LJ. A thought on the biological activities of black tea. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2009;49:379-404.
34. Chakraborty SP, Mahapatra SK, Sahu SK, Das S, Tripathy S, Dash S, et al. Internalization of Staphylococcus aureus in lymphocytes induces oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation: Possible ameliorative role of nanoconjugated vancomycin. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2011;94:21-3.
35. Mothana RA, Lindequist U. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants of the Island soqotra. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;96:177-81.
36. Kobayashi T, Miyazaki A, Matsuzawa A, Kuroki Y, Shimamura T, Yoshida T, et al. Change in curcumin content of rhizome in turmeric and yellow zedoary. Jan J Crop Sci 2010;1:10-5.
37. Hossain A, Ishimine Y, Akamine H, Motomura K. Effects of seed rhizome size on growth and yield of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). Plant Prod Sci 2005;8:86-94.
38. Cowan MM. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol Rev 1999;12:564-82.
39. Lee JH, Cho S, Paik HD, Choi SW, Nam KT, Hwang SG, et al. Investigation on antibacterial and antioxidant activities, phenolic and flavonoid contents of some Thai edible plants as an alternative for antibiotics. Asian Australas J Anim Sci 2014;10:1461-8.
40. Sen A, Batra A. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts of medicinal plant: Melia Azedarach L. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2012;4:67-73.
41. Do QD, Angkawijaya AE, Tran-Nguyen PL, Huynh LH, Soetaredjo FE, Ismadji S, et al. Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatic. J Food Drug Anal 2014;22:296-302.
42. Azwanida NN. A review on the extraction methods use in medicinal plants, principle, strength and limitation. Med Aromat Plants 2015;4:196.
37 Views | 18 Downloads
How to Cite
Original Article(s)