• KEERTHI PRIYA CS Department of Physiology, Dr. ALM Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • MALATHI S Department of Physiology, Madha Medical College and Hospital, Kovur, Thandalam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7769-3624
  • RAVINDRAN RAJAN Department of Physiology, Dr. ALM Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.


Objective: The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of paradoxical sleep deprivation (SD) on learning and memory impairment and anxiety-like behavior in female Wistar albino rats.

Methods: Eight-arm radial maze, open-field test, and light and dark test were used to assess the animals learning and memory and anxiety-like behavior.

Results: SD associated with weaker learning and memory and increased anxiety- and depressive-like behavior in animals.

Conclusion: Animals were exposed to SD showed learning and memory impairment and also exhibited increased anxiety- and depressive-like behavior when compared to control animals.

Keywords: Behavior, Sleep deprivation, Cognition


1. Thompson AM, Swant J, Gosnell BA, Wagner JJ. Modulation of long-term potentiation in the rat hippocampus following cocaine self-administration. Neuroscience 2004;127:177-85.
2. Claro FT, Silva RH. Bovine brain phosphatidylserine attenuates scopolamine-induced amnesia. Physiol Behav 1999;67:551-4.
3. Patti CL, Kameda SR, Carvalho RC, Takatsu-Coleman AL, Lopez GB, Niigaki ST, et al. Effects of morphine on the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task: Role of state-dependent learning. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2006;184:1-12.
4. Investigation O. Dissociation of the effects of ethanol on memory, anxiety, and motor behavior in mice tested in the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2007;192:39-48.
5. Bueno OF, Lobo LL, Oliveira MG, Gugliano EB, Pomarico AC, Tufik S. Dissociated paradoxical sleep deprivation effects on inhibitory avoidance and conditioned fear. Physiol Behav 1994;56:775-9.
6. Silva RH, Chehin AB, Kameda SR, Takatsu-Coleman AL, Abílio VC, Tufik S, et al. Effects of pre or post-training paradoxical sleep deprivation on two animal models of learning and memory in mice. Neurobiol Learn Mem 2004;82:90-8.
7. Silva RH, Abílio VC, Takatsu AL, Kameda SR, Grassl C, Chehin AB, et al. Role of hippocampal oxidative stress in memory deficits induced by sleep deprivation in mice. Neuropharmacology 2004;46:895-903.
8. Mcewen BS, Sapolsky RM. Stress and cognitive function. Curr Opin Neurobiol 1995;5:205-216.
9. Sandi C, Pinelo-Nava MT. Stress and memory: Behavioral effects and neurobiological mechanisms. Neural Plast 2007;2007:78970.
10. Harris PF, Overstreet DH, Orbach J. Disruption of passive avoidance memory by REM sleep deprivation: Methodological and pharmacological considerations. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1982;17:1119-22.
11. Skinner DM, Overstreet DH, Orbach JO. Reversal of the memory-disruptive effects of REM sleep deprivation by physostigminel. Behav Biol 1976;198:189-98.
12. Romcy-pereira R, Pavlides C. Distinct modulatory effects of sleep on the maintenance of hippocampal and medial prefrontal cortex LTP. Eur J Neurosci 2004;20:3453-62.
13. Mcdermott CM, Hardy MN, Bazan NG, Magee JC. Sleep deprivation-induced alterations in excitatory synaptic transmission in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. J Physiol 2006;3:553-65.
14. Polzella DJ. Effects of sleep deprivation on short-term recognition memory. J Exp Psychol Hum Learn Mem 1975;1:194-200.
15. Patti CL, Zanin KA, Sanday L, Kameda SR, Fernandes-Santos L, Fernandes HA, et al. Effects of sleep deprivation on memory in mice: Role of state-dependent learning. Sleep 2010;33:1669-79.
16. Youngblood BD, Smagin GN, Elkins PD, Ryan DH, Harris RB. The effects of paradoxical sleep deprivation and valine on spatial learning and brain 5-HT metabolism. Physiol Behav 1999;67:643-9.
17. Oniani TN. Does paradoxical sleep deprivation disturb memory trace consolidation? Physiol Behav 1984;33:687-92.
18. Slot LA, Colpaert FC. Opiate states of memory: Receptor mechanisms. J Neurosci 1999;19:10520-9.
19. Marshall L, Born J. The contribution of sleep to hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation. Trends Cogn Sci 2007;11:442-50.
20. Machado RB, Hipólide DC, Benedito-Silva AA, Tufik S. Sleep deprivation induced by the modified multiple platform technique: Quantification of sleep loss and recovery. Brain Res 2004;1004:45-51.
21. Gould TD, Dao DT, Kovacsics CE. Mood and Anxiety Related Phenotypes in Mice. New York: Springer; 2011. p. 63.
22. Arrant AE, Schramm-Sapyta NL, Kuhn CM. Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats. Behav Brain Res 2013;256:119-27.
23. Dimitrova N, Zamudio JR, Jong RM, Soukup D, Resnick R, Sarma K, et al. Public access NIH public access. PLoS One 2017;32:736-40.
24. Mechanisms B, States SW. Basic mechanisms of sleep-wake states. In: Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. Ch. 11. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2005. p. 136-53.
25. Thomas ML, Sing HC, Belenky G, Holcomb HH, Mayberg HS, Dannals RF, et al. Neural basis of alertness and cognitive performance impairments during sleepiness II. Effects of 48 and 72 h of sleep deprivation on waking human regional brain activity. Thalamus Relat Syst 2003;2:199-229.
26. Investigation O. Chronic escitalopram treatment restores spatial learning, monoamine levels, and hippocampal long-term potentiation in an animal model of depression. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2011;214:477-94.
27. Diekelmann S, Born J. The memory function of sleep. Nat Rev Neurosci 2010;11:114-26.
28. Goel N, Rao H, Durmer JS, Dinges DF. Neurocognitive consequences of sleep deprivation. Semin Neurol 2009;29:320-39.
29. Youngblood BD, Zhou J, Smagin GN, Ryan DH, Harris RB, Zhou J, et al. Sleep deprivation by the “‘flower pot’” technique and spatial reference memory paradoxical sleep deprivation reference memory rats catecholamines serotonin. Physiol Behav 1997;61:249-56. Available from: https://www.ezproxy-prd.bodleian.ox.ac.uk:6335/S0031938496003630/1-s2.0-S0031938496003630-main.pdf?_tid=3ba62aa6-abef-497e-9a4c-e0fc89c9fed9&acdnat=1551815172_ab7d13bd397de122f275c073d62727dd.
30. Banks S, Dinges DF. Behavioral and physiological consequences of sleep restriction. J Clin Sleep Med 2005;3:519-28.
31. Vandewalle G, Archer SN, Wuillaume C, Balteau E, Degueldre C, Luxen A, et al. Functional magnetic resonance imaging-assessed brain responses during an executive task depend on interaction of sleep homeostasis, circadian phase, and PER3 genotype. J Neurosci 2009;29:7948-56.
32. Smith C. Sleep states, memory processes and synaptic plasticity. Behav Brain Res 1996;78:49-56.
214 Views | 116 Downloads
How to Cite
PRIYA CS, K., M. S, and R. RAJAN. “EFFECT OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON REMINISCENCE AND APPREHENSION BEHAVIOR IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 13, no. 1, Nov. 2019, pp. 196-01, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i1.35187.
Original Article(s)