• VANITA KANASE Department of Pharmacology, Oriental College of Pharmacy, Sanpada, Navi Mumbai, India.
  • SANA SHAIKH Department of Pharmacology, Oriental College of Pharmacy, Sanpada, Navi Mumbai, India.


Objective: The objective of this study was to study the effect of ethanolic extract of Chromolaena odorata (EECO) Linn. on acute restraint stress (ARS)-induced stress-like behavior and biochemical alterations in albino Wistar rats.

Methods: The ARS was induced by immobilizing the rats for a period of 12 h using rodent restraint device preventing them from any physical movement. Immediately, after 12 h rats were released and doses were given to each rat. 40 min post-release various behavioral parameters such as immobility time in force swim test and tail suspension test (TST), locomotor activity in open field test (OFT), and oxidative stress parameters and biochemical alterations in rat brain tissue were also performed.

Statistical Analysis: Expression of data was done as mean±standard error of mean. The normally distributed data were subjected to one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Experimental findings revealed that rats subjected to ARS exhibited significant increase in immobility time in forced swim test and TST models, decrease in locomotor activity in OFT model, and increase in malondialdehyde formation and impaired superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities in hippocampus and cerebral cortex as compared to non-stressed rats. EECO treatment (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) significantly attenuated immobility time, locomotion, and restored the antioxidant enzymes after ARS.

Conclusion: EECO significantly alleviated ARS-induced stress-like behavior.

Keywords: Acute restraint stress, Diazepam, Chromolaena odorata, Ethanolic extract of Chromolaena odorata, Stress


1. Ansari I, Sorte RS. Evaluation of anti-stress activity of ethanolic extracts of Terminalia catappa L. in swiss albino mice. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:253-7.
2. Kumar A, Garg R, Prakash AK. Effect of St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) treatment on restraint stress-induced behavioral and biochemical alteration in mice. BMC Complement Altern Med 2010;10:18.
3. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM. Oxygen radicals and the nervous system. Trends Neurosci 1985;8:22-6.
4. Freitas AE, Bettio LE, Neis VB, Santos DB, Ribeiro CM, Rosa PB, et al. Agmatine abolishes restraint stress-induced depressive-like behavior and hippocampal antioxidant imbalance in mice. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2014;50:143-50.
5. Sundaram RS, Gowtham L. Microglia and regulation of inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration: Prevention and treatment by phytochemicals and metabolic nutrients. Int J Green Pharm 2012;6:81-92.
6. Vanita K, Sana S. A pharmacognostic and pharmacological review on Chromolaena odorata (siam weed). Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:34-8.
7. Kokate CK. Practical Pharmacognosy. 4th ed. New Delhi: Vallabh Prakashan; 2005.
8. Khandelwal KR. Practical Pharmacognosy. Pune: Nirali Prakashan; 2000.
9. Ogbonnia SO, Mbaka GO, Anyika EN, Osegbo OM, Igbokwe NH. Evaluation of acute toxicity in rats and subchronic toxicity of hydroethanolic extract of Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson (Fam. Asteraceae) in rats. Agric Biol J N Am 2010;1:859-65.
10. Buynitsky T, Mostofsky DI. Restraint stress in biobehavioral research: Recent developments. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2009;33:1089-98.
11. Takada T, Yoshinari N, Sugiishi S, Kawase H, Yamane T, Noguchi T, et al. Effect of restraint stress on the progression of experimental periodontitis in rats. J Periodontol 2004;75:306-15.
12. Hånell A, Marklund N. Structured evaluation of rodent behavioral tests used in drug discovery research. Front Behav Neurosci 2014;8:252.
13. Moallem SA, Hosseinzadeh H, Ghoncheh F. Evaluation of antidepressant effects of aerial parts of Echium vulgare on mice. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2007;10:189-96.
14. Yeap SK, Beh BK, Ali NM, Yusof HM, Ho WY, Koh SP, et al. Antistress and antioxidant effects of virgin coconut oil in vivo. Exp Ther Med 2015;9:39-42.
15. Aebi H. Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. Vol. 2. New York: Academic Press; 1974. p. 674.
16. Misra HP, Fridovich I. The oxidation of phenylhydrazine: Superoxide and mechanism. Biochemistry 1976;15:681.
17. Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1979;95:351-8.
18. Miller GE, Chen E, Parker KJ. Psychological stress in childhood and susceptibility to the chronic diseases of aging: Moving toward a model of behavioral and biological mechanisms. Psychol Bull 2011;137:959-97.
19. Sulakhiya K, Patel VK, Saxena R, Dashore J, Srivastava AK, Rathore M, et al. Effect of Beta vulgaris Linn. Leaves extract on anxiety-and depressive-like behavior and oxidative stress in mice after acute restraint stress. Pharmacognosy Res 2016;8:1-7.
20. Budni J, Zomkowski AD, Engel D, Santos DB, dos Santos AA, Moretti M, et al. Folic acid prevents depressive-like behavior and hippocampal antioxidant imbalance induced by restraint stress in mice. Exp Neurol 2013;240:112-21.
21. Borsini F, Meli A. Is the forced swimming test a suitable model for revealing antidepressant activity? Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1988;94:147-60.
22. Hsu LC, Ko YJ, Cheng HY, Chang CW, Lin YC, Cheng YH, et al. Antidepressant-like activity of the ethanolic extract from Uncaria lanosa wallich var. Appendiculata ridsd in the forced swimming test and in the tail suspension test in mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012;2012:497302.
23. Kolla N, Wei Z, Richardson JS, Li XM. Amitriptyline and fluoxetine protect PC12 cells from cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2005;30:196-201.
24. Sirinthipaporn A, Jiraungkoorskul W. Wound healing property review of siam weed, Chromolaena odorata. Pharmacogn Rev 2017;11:35-8.
213 Views | 113 Downloads
How to Cite
VANITA KANASE, and SANA SHAIKH. “EVALUATION OF ANTISTRESS ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CHROMOLAENA ODORATA LEAVES IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 12, no. 11, Sept. 2019, pp. 50-55, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2019.v12i11.35452.
Original Article(s)