ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ROBUSTA COFFEE (COFFEA CANEPHORA L.) LEAVES TO STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI

  • ZAMHARIRA MUSLIM Department of Pharmacy, Poltekkes Kemenkes Bengkulu, Bengkulu, Indonesia.
  • YONANIKO DEPHINTO Department of Nursing Science Program, STIKes Ranah Minang, Padang, Indonesia.

Abstract

Objective: This research aims to analyze the ability of robusta coffee leaves fraction extract to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and also determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC).


Methods: Antibacterial activity evaluated by the disc diffusion method observed in four types of fraction of extract robusta coffee leaves (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water). Each extract divided into three various concentrations, 5%, 10%, and 15%. Determination of antimicrobial activity in vitro by the disk diffusion method.


Results: Ethyl acetate fraction of coffee leaves extract produced the largest diameter zone of inhibition of bacterial growth compared to other extraction fractions of 17.28 mm in E. coli and 18.58 mm in S. aureus. The MIC of coffee leaves extract fraction water, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane on E. coli and S. aureus is 5%, while the fraction ethanol MIC is 10%.


Conclusion: The antibacterial effect of ethyl acetate fraction of coffee leaves extract showed an antibacterial effect that was better than the fraction of n-hexane, ethanol, and water.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Coffee leaves, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli

References

1. Badan Pusat Statistik. Statistik Kopi Indonesia 2016 (Indonesian Coffee Statistics 2016). Jakarta: BPS-Statistics Indonesia; 2016.
2. Novita R, Kasim A, Anggraini T, Putra DP. Kahwa daun: Traditional knowledge of a coffee leaf herbal tea from West Sumatera, Indonesia. J Ethn Foods 2018;5:1-6.
3. Talamond P, Mondolot L, Gargadennec A, Kochko A, Hamon S, Fruchier A, et al. First report on mangiferin (C-glucosyl-xanthone) isolated from leaves of a wild coffee plant, Coffea pseudozanguebariae (Rubiaceae). Acta Bot Gall 2008;155:513-9.
4. Mazzafera P. Mineral nutrition and caffeine content. Nutrition 1999;58:387-91.
5. Mondolot L, La Fisca P, Buatois B, Talansier E, de Kochko A, Campa C, et al. Evolution in caffeoylquinic acid content and histolocalization during Coffea canephora leaf development. Ann Bot 2006;98:33-40.
6. Campa C, Mondolot L, Rakotondravao A, Bidel LP, Gargadennec A, Couturon E, et al. A survey of mangiferin and hydroxycinnamic acid ester accumulation in coffee (Coffea) leaves: Biological implications and uses. Ann Bot 2012;110:595-613.
7. He?imovi? I, Belš?ak-Cvitanovi? A, Horži? D, Komes D. Comparative study of polyphenols and caffeine in different coffee varieties affected by the degree of roasting. Food Chem 2011;129:991-1000.
8. Karakaya S. Bioavailability of phenolic compounds. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2004;44:453-64.
9. Rampurawala J, Vedamurthy AB, Joy Hoskeri H. A report on a potent anthelmintic agent unbaked coffee arabica bean extracts. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013;6 Suppl 5:119-21.
10. Lukitasari M, Nugroho DA, Rohman MS, Nugrahini NI, Sardjono TW. Light-roasted green coffee extract improved adiponectin, insulin resistance, and metabolic profile of metabolic syndrome rat model. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:279-83.
11. Furuhata K, Dogasaki C, Hara M, Fukuyama M. Inactivation of Legionella pneumophila by phenol compounds contained in coffee. J Antibact Antifung Agents Japan 2002;30:291-7.
12. Dogasaki C, Shindo T, Furuhata K, Fukuyama M. Identification of chemical structure of antibacterial components against Legionella pneumophila in a coffee beverage. Yakugaku Zasshi 2002;122:487-94.
13. Almeida AA, Naghetini CC, Santos VR, Glória MB. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Coffee Extracts on Streptococcus mutans,” In Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Coffee Science; 2004. p. 242-8.
14. Daglia M, Tarsi R, Papetti A, Grisoli P, Dacarro C, Pruzzo C, et al. Antiadhesive effect of green and roasted coffee on Streptococcus mutans’ adhesive properties on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:1225-9.
15. Davis WW, Stout TR. Disc plate method of microbiological antibiotic assay. II. Novel procedure offering improved accuracy. Appl Microbiol 1971;22:666-70.
16. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Inventaris Obat Indonesia. Vol. 1. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan; 1988.
17. Rahardjo P. Panduan Budidaya dan Pengolahan Kopi Arabika dan Robusta. Jakarta: Penebar Swadaya; 2012.
18. Saifudin A. Senyawa Alam Metabolit Sekunder; Teori, Konsep, dan Teknik Pemurnian. Yogyakarta: Deepublish; 2014.
19. González-Lamothe R, Mitchell G, Gattuso M, Diarra MS, Malouin F, Bouarab K, et al. Plant antimicrobial agents and their effects on plant and human pathogens. Int J Mol Sci 2009;10:3400-19.
20. Fardiaz S. Antimicrobial activity of coffee (Coffea robusta) extract. ASEAN Food J 1995;10:103-6.
21. Akiyama H, Fujii K, Yamasaki O, Oono T, Iwatsuki K. Antibacterial action of several tannins against Staphylococcus aureus. J Antimicrob Chemother 2001;48:487-91.
22. Ajizah A. Sensitivitas Salmonella typhimurium terhadap ekstrak daun Psidium guajava L. Bioscientiae 2004;1:31-8.
Statistics
481 Views | 205 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
ZAMHARIRA MUSLIM, and YONANIKO DEPHINTO. “ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ROBUSTA COFFEE (COFFEA CANEPHORA L.) LEAVES TO STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 12, no. 12, Oct. 2019, pp. 113-5, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2019.v12i12.35589.
Section
Original Article(s)