PREPARATION AND INITIAL BIOCOMPATABILITY EVALUATION OF BIOGENIC HYDROXYAPATITE/ CHITOSAN/ PVA BIOCOMPOSITE AS A DRUG DELIVERY CARRIER OF PRONEUROGENIC FACTOR
Objective: This study explores the synthesis of biogenic hydroxyapatite (HAp)/chitosan (CS)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) bio-composites for delivery of
proneurogenic factor, retinoic acid for reconstruction of craniofacial deformities.
Methods: In order to accomplish this aim, we started with the synthesis of HAp using the biomolecules occluded in the cucumber peel (CPHAp).
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction studies (XRD) studies confirmed the
purity and morphology of CPHAp. Further, a microenvironment for nerve cell growth was designed by synthesis of biogenic HAp/CS/PVA blends
loaded with retinoic acid (CS-PVA-CPHAp-all-trans-retinoic acid [ATRA]). The prepared biocomposites were characterized under advanced analytical
instruments such as SEM, FTIR, and XRD.
Results: The SEM analysis for the prepared biocomposites confirmed the formation of interconnected porous matrix. The results of FTIR confirm the
biocomposite formation without chemical modification of ATRA. From XRD the amorphous nature was confirmed, inducing suitability of the material
for delivery process. Release of ATRA from CS-PVA-CPHAp-ATRA was sustained, with a cumulative release of 55% at the end of 10th day. Furthermore,
3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay indicated that, the biocomposites are better in scaffold properties, and it
provides a healthier environment for cell attachment and spreading.
Conclusion: The porous CS-PVA CPHAp-ATRA composites may be applied to craniofacial tissue engineering as a long-term or permanent scaffold due
to their good biocompatibility and sustained release of proneurogenic factor.
Keywords: Hydroxyapatite/chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol bio-composites, Biocompatibility, Cell compatibility, Scaffold, Craniofacial deformities.
2. Zhu S, Zhang B, Man C, Ma Y, Hu J. NEL-like molecule-1-modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells/poly lactic-co-glycolic acid composite improves repair of large osteochondral defects in mandibular condyle. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2011;19(6):743-50.
3. Susarla SM, Swanson E, Gordon CR. Craniomaxillofacial reconstruction using allotransplantation and tissue engineering: challenges, opportunities, and potential synergy. Ann Plast Surg 2011;67:655-61.
4. Blum N, Begemann G. Retinoic acid signaling controls the formation, proliferation and survival of the blastema during adult zebrafish fin regeneration. Development 2012;139(1):107-16.
5. Gupte MJ, Ma PX. Nanofibrous scaffolds for dental and craniofacial applications. J Dent Res 2012;91(3):227-34.
6. Weir MD, Xu HH. Osteoblastic induction on calcium phosphate cement-chitosan constructs for bone tissue engineering. J Biomed Mater Res A 2010;94(1):223-33.
7. Liu H, Peng H, Wu Y, Zhang C, Cai Y, Xu G, et al. The promotion of bone regeneration by nanofibrous hydroxyapatite/chitosan scaffolds by effects on integrin-BMP/Smad signaling pathway in BMSCs. Biomaterials 2013;34(18):4404-17.
8. Song W, Markel DC, Wang S, Shi T, Mao G, Ren W. Electrospun polyvinyl alcohol-collagen-hydroxyapatite nanofibers: a biomimetic extracellular matrix for osteoblastic cells. Nanotechnology 2012;23(11):115101.
9. Tan H, Chu CR, Payne KA, Marra KG. Injectable in situ forming biodegradable chitosan-hyaluronic acid based hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering. Biomaterials 2009;30(13):2499-506.
10. Celebi H, Gurbuz M, Koparal S, Dogan A. Development of antibacterial electrospun chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibers containing silver ion-incorporated HAP nanoparticles. Special Issue: 15th European Conference on Composite Materials (ECCM15): Part 3. Compos Interfaces 2013;20(9):799-812.
11. Shuyan G, Zhengdao Li, Hongjie Z. Bioinspired green synthesis of nanomaterials and their applications. Curr Nanosci 2010;17:452-68.
12. Nayar S, Guha A. Waste utilization for the controlled synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite. Mater Sci Eng C 2009;29:1326-9.
13. Lancaster L, Lung MH, Sujan D. Utilization of agro-industrial waste in metal matrix composites: Towards sustainability. Int J Environ Earth Sci Eng 2013;7:1.
14. Mallik J, Akhter R. Phytochemical screening and in-vitro evaluation of reducing power, cytotoxicity and anti-fungal activities of ethanol extracts of Cucumis sativus. Int J Pharma Biol Arch 2012;3:555-60.
15. Peroglio M, Gremillard L, Gauthier C, Chazeau L, Verrier S, Alini M, et al. Mechanical properties and cytocompatibility of poly(e-caprolactone)-infiltrated biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds with bimodal po re distribution. Acta Biomater 2010;6(11):4369-79.
16. Mohtaram NK, Junghuvk K, Carlson M, Stephanie MW. Nanofabrication of electrospun fibres for controlled release of retinoic acid. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Micro Manufacturing University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada, March 25-28; 2013.
17. Jeong YI, Kim SH, Jung TY, Kim IY, Kang SS, Jin YH, et al. Polyion complex micelles composed of all-trans retinoic acid and poly (ethylene glycol)-grafted-chitosan. J Pharm Sci 2006;95:2348-60.
18. Erbin ZH, Meihua XI, Mingchun LI, Jiafu LI. Hydrogen bonding and compatibility of chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol blend films [J]. Chem Ind Eng Prog 2012;31:1082-7.
19. Okada Y, Shimazaki T, Sobue G, Okano H. Retinoic-acid-concentration-dependent acquisition of neural cell identity during in vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. Dev Biol 2004;275(1):124-42.
20. Maia J, Santos T, Aday S, Agasse F, Cortes L, Malva JO, et al. Controlling the neuronal differentiation of stem cells by the intracellular delivery
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.