• OMAR ABDULWAHID AL-ANI Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Rafidain University College, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • ABDURRAHMAN AL-BAZZAZ Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Science, Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman, Jordan.


Objective: The importance of measuring the blood level of modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) molecules is an effective method of identifying people at risk of coronary atherosclerosis; this is because, in the early stages of atherosclerosis, lipolysis and oxidative modification have a role in promoting the uptake of these lipids through macrophages; therefore, this research aims to measure the level of glycated LDL (Gly-LDL) in the blood and its association with metabolic parameters of diabetic patients (diabetes mellitus) and non-diabetic (hyperlipidemia).

Methods: At a University Diabetes Center in Riyadh, we using routine automatic analysis methods, fasting serum samples were analyzed for 31 patients with Type-2 diabetes and 31 non-diabetic patients for LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), total cholesterol, glycated hemoglobin, glucose, and triglycerides (TG), and using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to analyze Gly-LDL for the same sample.

Results: The level of serum Gly-LDL in non-diabetic was higher than in diabetic patients (p=0.037). Gly-LDL level correlated significantly with LDL in the diabetic group (p=0.035) and was insignificant with other parameters; moreover, it is significantly correlated with HDL (p=0.048), TG (p=0.035), and very LDL (p=0.03) in the non-diabetic group and insignificant with other parameters.

Conclusion: Measuring rates of Gly-LDL can be used in the early detection of cardiovascular disease, especially in people with diabetes, as they are more susceptible to modified and oxidized LDL.

Keywords: Hyperlipidemia, Low-density lipoprotein, Glycated low-density lipoprotein, Diabetes mellitus, Atherosclerosis


1. Mohsin A, Sana A, Syed I, Mohammed A, Mohd A. Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) technology: Current challenges and future promises for a better diabetic lifestyle. Hum J 2017;9:190-83.
2. Doron A, Elliot J. How hyperglycemia promotes atherosclerosis: Molecular mechanisms. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2002;1:136-27.
3. Samer M, Wael W, Saad H. Effects of a combination therapy with atorvastatin and metformin on the glycemic control and adiposity indices in newly diagnosed overweight patients with Type -2 diabetes mellitus. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:209-13.
4. Isoda K, Folco E, Marwali MR, Ohsuzu F, Libby P. Glycated LDL increases monocyte CC chemokine receptor 2 expression and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-mediated chemotaxis. Atherosclerosis 2008;198:307-12.
5. Tooba L, Qureshi SA. Centratherum anthelminticum and Withania coagulans improves lipid profile and oxidative stress in triton X-100 induced hyperlipidemic. Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res 2016;8:940-33.
6. Misciagna G, Logroscino G, De Michele G, Guerra V, Cisternino AM, Caruso MG, et al. Glycated apolipoprotein B and myocardial infarction. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2007;17:6-12.
7. Schleicher E, Deufel T, Wieland OH. Non-enzymatic glycosylation of human serum lipoproteins. Elevated epsilon-lysine glycosylated low density lipoprotein in diabetic patients. FEBS Lett 1981;129:1-4.
8. Singh R, Barden A, Mori T, Beilin L. Advanced glycation end-products. Diabetologia 2001;24:146-29.
9. Younis N, Sharma R, Soran H, Charlton-Menys V, Elseweidy M, Durrington PN. Glycation as an atherogenic modification of LDL. Curr Opin Lipidol 2008;19:384-78.
10. Younis N, Soran H, Hassanein M. Cardiovascular disease and intensive glucose lowering in Type 2 diabetes. QJM 2009;102: 293-396.
11. Hermo R, Mier C, Mazzotta M, Tsuji M, Kimura S, Gugliucci A. Circulating levels of nitrated apolipoprotein A-I are increased in Type 2 diabetic patients. Clin Chem Lab Med 2005;43:601-6.
12. Haffner SM, Lehto S, Rönnemaa T, Pyörälä K, Laakso M. Mortality from coronary heart disease in subjects with Type 2 diabetes and in nondiabetic subjects with and without prior myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1998;339:229-34.
13. American Diabetes Association. Position statement. Management of dyslipidaemia in adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care 1998;21:179-82.
14. Dean JD, Durrington PN. Treatment of dyslipoproteinaemia in diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med 1996;13:297-312.
15. Garg A. Management of dyslipidemia in IDDM patients. Diabetes Care 1994;17:224-34.
16. Syvanne M, Taskinen M. Lipids and lipoproteins as coronary risk factors in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Lancet 1997;350 Suppl 1:20-3.
17. Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001;285:2486-97.
18. Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Summary of the second report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel II) JAMA 1993;269:3015-23.
19. Brown WV. Lipoprotein disorders in diabetes mellitus. Med Clin North Am 1994;78:143-61.
20. Stehouwer CD, Schaper NC. The pathogenesis of vascular complications of diabetes mellitus: One voice or many? Eur J Clin Invest 1996;26:535-43.
21. Krämer-Guth A, Quaschning T, Galle J, Baumstark MW, Königer M, Nauck M, et al. Structural and compositional modifications of diabetic low-density lipoproteins influence their receptor-mediated uptake by hepatocytes. Eur J Clin Invest 1997;27:460-8.
22. Graier WF, Kostner GM. Glycated low-density lipoprotein and atherogenesis: The missing link between diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia? Eur J Clin Invest 1997;27:457-9.
23. Pentikäinen MO, Oörni K, Ala-Korpela M, Kovanen PT. Modified LDL trigger of atherosclerosis and inflammation in the arterial intima. J Int Med 2000;247:359-70.
24. Tames FJ, Mackness MI, Arrol S, Laing I, Durrington PN. Non-enzymatic glycation of apolipoprotein B in the sera of diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Atherosclerosis 1992;93:237-44.
25. Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group, Gerstein HC, Miller ME, Byington RP, Goff DC Jr., Bigger JT, et al. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in Type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008;358:2545-59.
26. Panteghini M, Cimino A, Pagani F, Girelli A. Non-enzymicglycation of apolipoprotein B in patients with insulin- and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Clin Biochem 1995;28:592-87.
27. Malik S, Wong ND, Franklin SS, Kamath TV, L’Italien GJ, Pio JR, et al. Impact of the metabolic syndrome on mortality from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and all causes in United States adults. Circulation 2004;110:1245-50.
28. Lee W, Min WK, Chun S, Jang S, Kim JQ, Lee DH, et al. Low-density lipoprotein subclass and its correlating factors in diabetics. Clin Biochem 2003;36:657-61.
29. Elmurugan C, Anurag B. Anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic activity of fruits of Pyrus communis L in hyperglycemic rats. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013;6:108-11.
30. Hedrick CC, Thorpe SR, Fu MX, Harper CM, Yoo J, Kim SM, et al. Glycation impairs high-density lipoprotein function. Diabetologia 2000;43:312-20.
253 Views | 138 Downloads
How to Cite
AL-ANI, O. A., and A. AL-BAZZAZ. “GLYCATED LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN IN DIABETIC AND NON-DIABETIC PATIENTS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 13, no. 2, Feb. 2020, pp. 123-6, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i2.36417.
Original Article(s)