• OMAR ABDULWAHID AL-ANI Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Rafidain University College, Baghdad, Iraq.


Objective: During pregnancy, various drugs associated with a contraindication, hence their application is limited and dangerous to mothers along with the fetus. Even though during pregnancy, medication is less preferred but in some instances cannot escape treating the ailments in mother. So here we discussed the medication that can be used safely during pregnancy along with the drugs which are unsafe or highly contraindicated for both mother and the fetus; the problems or complications may be attributed to possible drug interactions during the pregnancy.

Methods: The study was conducted from October 2018 until February 2019 in Baghdad, Iraq. It is conducted in four hospitals: Baghdad teaching hospital, Iraqi Red Crescent Society, Saint Raphael (Al Rahibat) Hospital, and Al-Elwiya Educational Hospital. The medical staff in these hospitals assessed for their knowledge about drug effects, complications, and safety during pregnancy. Those medical staff assayed was divided into three groups: Physicians, pharmacists, and other medical staff (47 pharmacists, 38 physicians, and 15 nurses who participated in this study).

Results: We found that the majority of doctors and pharmacists useful information on pregnancy categories which is a good indicator of the knowledge of these specialists as the subject of drugs and their impact on pregnant women and the fetus is sensitive and vital because it affects all segments of society.

Conclusion: It is the responsibility of all clinicians, including pharmacists, to counsel patients with complete, accurate, and current information on the risks and benefits of using medications during pregnancy.

Keywords: Pregnant women, Pregnancy category medication, Congenital malformations, Placenta


1. Benjamin DM. Reducing medication errors and increasing patient safety. J Clin Pharmacol 2003;43:768-83.
2. Kacew S. Fetal consequences and risks attributed to the use of prescribed and over-the counter (OTC) preparations during pregnancy. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1994;32:335.
3. Koren G, Pastuszak A, Ito S. Drugs in pregnancy. N Engl J Med 1998;338:1128-37.
4. Czeizel AE. The estimation of human teratogenic/fetotoxic risk of exposures to drugs on the basis of Hungarian experience: A critical evaluation of clinical and epidemiological models of human teratology. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2009;8:283-303.
5. Sachdeva P, Patel BG, Patel BK. Drug use in pregnancy: A point to ponder. Indian J Pharm Sci 2009;71:1-7.
6. Rohra DK, Das N, Azam SI, Solangi NA, Memon Z, Shaikh AM. Drug-prescribing patterns during pregnancy in the tertiary care hospitals of Pakistan: A cross sectional study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2008;8:24.
7. Ah-Ani OA, Al-Bazzaz A. Glycated low-density lipoprotein in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2019;13:123-6.
8. Andrade SE, Raebel MA, Morse AN, Davis RL, Chan KA, Finkelstein JA. Use of prescription medications with a potential for fetal harm among pregnant women. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2006;15:546-54.
9. Lee E, Maneno MK, Smith L, Weiss SR, Zuckerman IH, Wutoh AK. National patterns of medication use during pregnancy. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2006;15:537-45.
10. Nordeng H, Ystrøm E, Einarson A. Perception of risk regarding the use of medications and other exposures during pregnancy. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2010;66:207-14.
11. Pole M, Einarson A, Pairaudeau N, Einarson T, Koren G. Drug labeling and risk perceptions of teratogenicity: A survey of pregnant Canadian women and their health professionals. J Clin Pharmacol 2000;40:573-7.
12. Buurma H, De Smet PA, Egberts AC. Clinical risk management in Dutch community pharmacies: The case of drug-drug interactions. Drug Saf 2006;29:723-32.
13. Toovey S. Malaria chemoprophylaxis advice: Survey of South African community pharmacists’ knowledge and practices. J Travel Med 2006;13:161-5.
14. Koren G, Levichek Z. The teratogenicity of drugs for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: Perceived versus true risk. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;186:248-52.
15. Pangle BL. Drugs in pregnancy and lactation. In: Herfindal ET, Gourley DR, editors. Text Book of Therapeutics, Drug and Disease Management. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott William Wilkins; 2006. p. 434-48.
16. Katmini, Murti B, Oepomo TD, Anantanyu S. Path analysis on the effect of social capital on the empowerment of pregnant women in pre-eclampsia prevention using precede-proceede in Kediri east Java, Indonesia. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:271-3.
77 Views | 130 Downloads
How to Cite
AL-ANI, O. A. “DRUGS IN PREGNANCY”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 13, no. 6, June 2020, pp. 78-82, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i6.36746.
Original Article(s)