TANNIN CONTENT OF ARECA NUT AFTER NANOCHITOSAN COATING ON DRYING METHODS

  • FEVI MAWADHAH PUTRI Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH Tembalang, Semarang, Indonesia.
  • ERMA PRIHASTANTI Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH Tembalang, Semarang, Indonesia.
  • ENDAH DWI HASTUTI Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH Tembalang, Semarang, Indonesia.

Abstract

Objective: This research aimed to investigate the effect of nanochitosan (NC) coating in different drying methods on the tannin content of areca nut.


Methods: Areca nut was obtained from the seed of Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT). Chitosan was isolated from shrimp shell waste through deproteination, demineralization, depigmentation, and deacetylation. NC was made using the ionic gelation method. The treatment used three levels of concentrations; K0 (uncoated-control), K1 (NC 1.5 g/l), and K2 (NC 3 g/l), and it employed two drying methods, namely, P1 (sun drying) and P2 (oven drying). Tannin content measured by spectrophotometry method. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance univariate two factors and followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT).


Results: The result showed that the NC-coated areca nut has a higher tannin content compared with the uncoated areca nut. The level of NC concentration had a significantly different effect (p 0.02 < 0.05), whereas the drying method gave no significant effect (p 0.81 > 0.05) and there was no interaction between NC concentration and drying method (p 0.89 > 0.05 ). The tannin content in areca nut in K0 (control) treatment was 17.44%, K1 (NC 1.5 g / l) was 18.11%, and K2 (NC 3 g / l) was 18.83%.


Conclusion: Application of NC as a coating on areca nut can prevent the loss of tannin throughout the drying process. Dried areca nut with K2 treatment (NC 3 g/l) has the highest tannin content as it reaches18.83%.

Keywords: Tannin, Areca Nut, Nanochitosan, Coating

References

1. Peng W, Liu YJ, Wu N, Sun T, He XY, Gao YX, et al. Areca catechu L. (Arecaceae): A review of its traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology. J Ethnopharmacol 2015;164:340-56.
2. Prabhu SR, Wilson DF, Daftary DK, Johnson NW, editors. Oral Diseases in the Tropics. New Delhi: Jaypee, The Health Sciences Publisher; 2017.
3. Falcão L, Araújo M. Vegetable tannins used in the manufacture of historic leathers. Molecules 2018;23:1081.
4. Shahat AA, Marzouk MS. Tannins and related compounds from medicinal plants of Africa. In: Medicinal Plant Research in Africa. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier; 2013. p. 479-555.
5. Haslam E. Natural polyphenols (vegetable tannins) as drugs: Possible modes of action. J Nat Prod 1996;59:205-15.
6. Harbourne N, Marete E, Jacquier JC, O’Riordan D. Effect of drying methods on the phenolic constituents of meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) and willow (Salix alba). LWT-Food Sci Technol 2009;42:1468-73.
7. Ferreira EC, Nogueira AR, Souza GB, Batista LA. Effect of drying method and length of storage on tannin and total phenol concentrations in pigeon pea seeds. Food Chem 2004;86:17-23.
8. Jianglian D, Shaoying Z. Application of chitosan based coating in fruit and vegetable preservation: A review. J Food Process Technol 2013;4:227.
9. Yogeshkumar GN, Atul GS, Adhikrao YV. Chitosan and its applications: A review of literature. Int J Res Pharm Biom Sci 2013;1:312-31.
10. Azimzadeh B, Jahadi M. Effect of chitosan edible coating with Laurus nobilis extract on shelf life of cashew. Food Sci Nutr 2018;6:871-7.
11. Chien PJ, Sheu F, Lin HR. Coating citrus (Murcott tangor) fruit with low molecular weight chitosan increases postharvest quality and shelf life. Food Chem 2007;100:1160-64.
12. Varasteh F, Arzani K, Barzegar M, Zamani Z. Changes in anthocyanins in arils of chitosan-coated pomegranate (Punica granatum L. cv. Rabbab-e-Neyriz) fruit during cold storage. Food Chem 2012;130:267-72.
13. Lustriane C, Dwivany FM, Suendo V, Reza M. Effect of chitosan and chitosan-nanoparticles on postharvest quality of banana fruits. J Plant Biotechnol 2018;45:36-44.
14. De Paz LE, Resin A, Howard KA, Sutherland DS, Wejse PL. Antimicrobial effect of chitosan nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans biofilms. Appl Environ Microbiol 2011;77:3892-95.
15. Gaikwad BV, Koli JM, Desai AS. Isolation and characterization of chitosan from crab (Scylla serrata) shell waste. Int J Sci Appl Res 2015;2:78-84.
16. Ramezani Z, Zarei M, Raminnejad N. Comparing the effectiveness of chitosan and nanochitosan coatings on the quality of refrigerated silver carp fillets. Food Control 2015;51:43-8.
17. Bera B. Nanoporous silicon prepared by vapour phase strain etch and sacrificial technique. Int J Comput Appl 2015;975:8887.
18. Danaei M, Dehghankhold M, Ataei S, Davarani FH, Javanmard R, Dokhani A, et al. Impact of particle size and polydispersity index on the clinical applications of lipidic nanocarrier systems. Pharmaceutics 2018;10:57.
19. Sierra JD, Lafita C, Gabaldón C, Spanjers H, van Lier JB. Trace metals supplementation in anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating highly saline phenolic wastewater. Bioresour Technol 2017;234:106-14.
20. Bedi R, Scully C. Tropical oral health. In: Manson’s Tropical Infectious Diseases. United States: WB Saunders; 2014. p. 1073-83.
21. Betoret E, Calabuig-Jiménez L, Barrera C, Rosa MD. Sustainable drying technologies for the development of functional foods and preservation of bioactive compounds. Sustain Drying Technol 2016;37:37-49.
22. Connor M, Luby A, Hanckok FJ, Berkheimer S, Hanson JE. Changes in fruit antioxidant activity among blueberry cultivars during cold temperature storage. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:893-98.
23. Meng X, Li B, Liu J,Tian S. Physiological responses and quality attributes of table grape fruit to chitosan preharvest spray and postharvest coating during storage. Food Chem 2008;106:501-08.
24. Novillo P, Salvador A, Llorca E, Hernando I, Besada, C. Effect of CO2 deastringency treatment on flesh disorders induced by mechanical damage in persimmon. Biochemical and microstructural studies. Food Chem 2014;145:454-63.
25. Franco PB, Almeida LA, Marques RF, da Silva MA, Campos MG. Chitosan associated with the extract of unripe banana peel for potential wound dressing application. Int J Polymer Sci 2017;2017:8.
26. Hithamani G, Medappa H, Chakkaravarthi A, Ramalakshmi K, Raghavarao KS. Effect of adsorbent and acidulants on enzymatic browning of sugarcane juice. J Food Sci Technol 2018;55:4356-62.
27. Pen LT, Jiang YM. Effects of chitosan coating on shelf life and quality of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut. LWT-Food Sci Technol 2003;36:359-34.
28. Ghasemnezhad M, Zareh S, Rassa M, Sajedi RH. Effect of chitosan coating on maintenance of aril quality, microbial population and PPO activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L. cv. Tarom) at cold storage temperature. J Sci Food Agric 2013;93:368-74.
29. Raliya R, Saran R, Choudhary K, Tarafdar JC. Biosynthesis and characterization of nanoparticles. J Adv Med Life Sci 2014;1:4.
30. Elsabee MZ, Abdou ES. Chitosan based edible films and coatings: A review. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2013;33:1819-41.
31. Han C, Zuo J, Wang Q, Xu L, Zhai B, Wang Z, et al. Effects of chitosan coating on postharvest quality and shelf life of sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica) during storage. Sci Hortic 2014;166:1-8.
32. Eshghi S, Hashemi M, Mohammadi A, Badii F, Mohammadhoseini Z, Ahmadi K. Effect of nanochitosan-based coating with and without copper loaded on physicochemical and bioactive components of fresh strawberry fruit (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne) during storage. Food Bioprocess Technol 2014;7:2397-409.
33. Wang SY, Gao H. Effect of chitosan-based edible coating on antioxidants, antioxidant enzyme system, and postharvest fruit quality of strawberries (Fragaria x aranassa Duch.). LWT-Food Sci Technol 2013;52:71-9.
34. Shiekh RA, Malik MA, Al-Thabaiti SA, Shiekh MA. Chitosan as a novel edible coating for fresh fruits. Food Sci Technol Res 2013;19:139-55.
Statistics
76 Views | 120 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
PUTRI, F. M., E. PRIHASTANTI, and E. DWI HASTUTI. “TANNIN CONTENT OF ARECA NUT AFTER NANOCHITOSAN COATING ON DRYING METHODS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 13, no. 4, Feb. 2020, pp. 75-78, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i4.36802.
Section
Original Article(s)