• ALYAE M S GABAL Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Women’s College, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
  • GEHAN M MORSY Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Women’s College, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.


Objective: The research designed to explore, for the 1st time, the probable antioxidant activity and protective effect of oral administration of beetroot (Beta vulgaris Rubra) and Swiss chard (B. vulgaris Cicla) juices against barium chloride (BaCl2)-induced toxicity in rats through investigating the changes on complete blood picture, heart and lung oxidative biomarkers, cardiac function tests, inflammatory markers as well as adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity, hypokalemia, and electrolyte disturbances.

Methods: Seventy-five adult male albino rats of Sprague-Dawley strains (150±5 g) were divided into five groups (15/each) except healthy control group which contains 10 rats, and BaCl2 control group that contains 20 rats as follows: Group I: Healthy control; Group II: BaCl2 control, and Groups III, IV, and V: BaCl2 intoxicated groups supplemented with 1 ml of beetroot, Swiss chard, and combination of both juices, respectively/kg body weight 3 times per week orally.

Results: Results explored that beetroot and Swiss chard juices contain significant amount of polyphenols and flavonoids as well as macro- and micronutrients that improved the complete blood picture, heart and lung oxidative stress parameters, cardiac function tests, inflammatory markers, ATPase activity, hypokalemia, and also electrolyte balance in supplemented groups compared to BaCl2 control group.

Conclusion: This search illustrated that fresh beetroot and Swiss chard juices can improve various biochemical abnormalities resulted from BaCl2 toxicity. BaCl2 intoxicated rats that were supplemented with combination of juices showed the most significant improvements.

Keywords: Beetroot, Swiss chard, Barium chloride, Oxidative stress, Inflammation, Heart, Lung, adenosine triphosphatase, Hypokalemia


1. Thompson LA, Darwish WS. Environmental chemical contaminants in food: Review of a global problem. J Toxicol 2019;6:1-14.
2. McNeilla IR, Isoardia KZ. Barium poisoning: An uncommon cause of severe hypokalemia. Toxicol Commun 2019;3 Suppl 1:88-90.
3. World Health Organization. Barium in Drinking-water. Background Document for Development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2004.
4. Bhoelan BH, Stevering CH, van der Boog AT. Barium toxicity and the role of the potassium inward rectifier current. Clin Toxicol 2014;52:584-93.
5. Ghasi S. Piperazine protects the rat heart against sudden cardiac death from barium chloride-induced ventricular fibrillation. Am J Ther 2008;15 Suppl 2:119-25.
6. Viera AJ. Potassium disorders: Hypokalemia and hyperkalemia. Am Fam Phys 2015;92 Suppl 6:489-95.
7. Sebastian MR, George AM. Evaluation of tocolytic activity of aqueous seed extract of Syzygium cumini on oxytocin induced preterm labor. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2020;13 Suppl 5:162-70.
8. Sharma KR, Rana K. Biological activities of some selected Nepalese medicinal plants and isolation of chemical constituents from Callicarpa macrophylla. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2020;12:91-8.
9. Zein H, Hashish AS, Ismaiel GH. The antioxidant and anticancer activities of Swiss chard and red beetroot leaves .Curr Sci Int 2015;4Suppl 4:491-8.
10. Mirmiran P, Houshialsadat Z, Gaeini Z, Bahadoran Z, Azizi F. Functional properties of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) in management of cardio-metabolic diseases. Nutr Metab J 2020;17:3-18.
11. Reif C, Arrigoni E, Scharer H, Nystrom L, Hurrell RF. Carotenoid database of commonly eaten Swiss vegetables and their estimated contribution to carotenoid intake. J Food Compos Anal 2013;29:64-72.
12. Borzelleca JF, Condie LW, Egle JL. Short-term toxicity (one- and ten-day gavage) of barium chloride in male and female rats. J Am COL. Toxicol 1998;7 Suppl 5:675-85.
13. National Research Council. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals 4th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1995.
14. Udonkang MI, Inyang IJ, Ukorebi AN, Effiong F, Akpan U, Bassey IE. Spectrophotometry, physiochemical properties, and histological staining potential of aqueous and ethanol extracts of beetroot on various tissues of an albino rat. Biomed Hub 2018;3:492-502.
15. Arnous A, Makrisand DP, Kefalas P. Effect of principal polyphenol components in relation to antioxidant characteristics of aged red wines. J Agric Food Chem 2001;49:5736.
16. Joyeux M, Lobestein A, Anton R, Morier F. Comparative anti lipoperoxidant, anti-necrotic and scavenging potencies of terpenes and bio-flavones from gingko and some flavonoids. Planta Med 1995;61:126-9.
17. Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. J Food Sci and Technol 1995;28:25.
18. AOAC International. Official methods of analysis. In: Horwitz W, editor. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 19th ed. Washington, DC, USA: AOAC International; 2012.
19. Dacie JV, Lewis SM. Practical Hematology. 6th ed. London, UK: ELBS and Churchill Livingstone; 1984.
20. Draper HH, Hadley M. Malondialdehyde determination as index of lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol 1990;186:421-31.
21. Witko V, Nguyen AT, Descamps-Latscha B. Microtiter plate assay for phagocyte-derived taurinechloramines. J Clin Lab Anal 1992;6:47-53.
22. Beutler E, Duroun O, Kelly BM. Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. J Lab Clin Med 1963;61:882-8.
23. Aebi H. Catalase in vitro. Methods Enzymol 1984;105:121-6.
24. Reitman S, Frankel S. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am J Clin Pathol 1957;28:56-63.
25. Dawson DM, Eppenberger HM, Kaplan NO. Creatine kinase: Evidence for a dimeric structure. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1965;21 Suppl 4:346-53.
26. Kawamoto EM, Munhoz CD, Glezer I. Oxidative state in platelets and erythrocytes in aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Aging 2005;26:857-64.
27. Apple FS, Ler R, Murakami MA. Determination of 19 cardiac troponin I and T assay 99th percentile values from a common presumably healthy population. Clin Chem 2012;58 Suppl 11:1574-81.
28. Neuman RE, Logan MA. The determination of collagen and elastin in tissues. J Biol Chem 1950;186:549-56.
29. Zhang J, Fujimoto N, Iwata K, Iwata H, Sakai T, Okada Y. A one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay for human matrix metalloproteinase 1 (interstitial collagenase) using monoclonal antibodies. Clin Chim Acta 1993;219:114.
30. Akhigbe RE, Ige SF, Afolabi AO, Oyeyipo PI, Ajao FO, Ajayi FA. Water balance and serum levels of some electrolytes in oral contraceptive-treated female Wistar rats. J Med Sci 2008;8:591-4.
31. Levesque R. SPSS Programming and Data Management: A Guide for SPSS and SAS Users. 4th ed. Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc.; 2007.
32. Ninfali P, Angelino D. Nutritional and functional potential of Beta vulgaris Cicla and Rubra. Fitoterapia 2013;89:188-99.
33. Ninfali P, Antonini E. Great nutraceutical potential of bioactive compounds from Beta vulgaris Cicla and Rubra. J Nutrafoods 2018;17:75-81.
34. Chipman JK, Parsons JL, Beddowes EJ. The multiple influences of glutathione on bromate genotoxicity: Implications for the dose response relationship. Toxicology 2006;221:187-9.
35. Ghorbel I, Maktouf S, Kallel C, Chaabouni SE, Boudawara T, Zeghal N. Disruption of erythrocyte antioxidant defense system, hematological parameters, induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and DNA damage in liver of co-exposed rats to aluminium and acrylamide. Chem Biol Interact 2015;236:31-40.
36. Rawat SK, Singh RK, Bansode FW, Singh P, Singh RP. Nitrate induced toxicity on some haematological parameters of Charles Foster rats. J Recent Adv Appl Sci 2013;28:35-8.
37. Trifunovi? S, Topalovi? A, Knezevi? M, Vajas V. Free radicals and antioxidants: Antioxidative and other properties of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. cicla). Agric For 2015;61:73-92.
38. Neha P, Jain SK, Jain NK, Jain HK, Mittal HK. Chemical and functional properties of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) for product development: A review. Inter J Chem Stud 2018;6 Suppl 3:3190-4.
39. Umarani V, Muvvala S, Ramesh A. Rutinpotentially attenuates fluoride-induced oxidative stress-mediated cardiotoxicity, blood toxicity and dyslipidemia in rats. Toxicol Mech Methods 2015;25:143-9.
40. Elwej A, Ben Salah G, Kallel C, Fakhfakh F, Zeghal N, Ben Amara I. Protective effects of pomegranate peel against hematotoxicity, chromosomal aberrations, and genotoxicity induced by barium chloride in adult rats. Pharm Biol 2016;54 Suppl 6:964-74.
41. Elwej A, Ghorbel I, Chaabane M, Soudani N, Marrekchi R, Jamoussi K, et al. Protective effects of dietary selenium and Vitamin C in barium-induced cardiotoxicity. Hum Exper Toxicol 2017a;36 Suppl 11:1146-57.
42. Elwej A, Ghorbel I, Chaabane M, Soudani N. Zinc and selenium modulate barium-induced oxidative stress, cellular injury and membrane-bound ATPase in the cerebellum of adult rats and their offspring during late pregnancy and early postnatal periods. Arch Physiol Biochem 2017b;124 Suppl 5:1-10.
43. Zhou R, Zheing P, Van L, Zheng J, Dia G. Cardioprotective effect of fluvastatin on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infraction in rat. Eur J Pharmacol 2008;586:244-50.
44. El Berry AA, Abdel-Naim AB, Abdel-Sattar EA, Nagy AA, Mosli HA, Mohamadin AM. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) protects against doxouruicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2010;48:1178-84.
45. Hansi DP, Stanely P, Mainzen P. Cardioprotective effect of gallic acid on cardiac troponin-T, cardiac marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation products and antioxidants in experimentally induced myocardial infraction in Wistar rats. Chem. Biol Interact 2009;179:118-24.
46. Antman EM. Decision making with cardiac troponin tests. N Engl J Med 2002;346:2079-82.
47. Remppis A, Scheffold T, Greten J. Intracellular compartmentation of troponin T: Release kinetics after global ischemia and calcium paradox in the isolated perfused rat heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol 1995;27:793-803.
48. O’Berien PJ, Smith DE, Knechtel TJ, Marchak MA, Peruimboom- Brees I, Brees DJ. Cardiac troponin I is a sensitive, specific biomarker of cardiac injury in laboratory animals. Lab Anim 2006;40:153-71.
49. Bertinchant JP, Robert E, Polge A, MartyDouble C, Fabbro-Peray P, Poirey S. Comparison of the diagnostic value of cardiac troponin I and T determinations for detecting early myocardial damage and the relationship with histological findings after isoprenaline-induced cardiac injury in rats. Clin Chem Acta 2000;289:13-28.
50. McCauley PT, Washington JS. Barium bioavailability as the chloride sulfate, or carbonate salt in the rat. Drug Chem Toxicol 1983;6 Suppl 2:209-17.
51. Siwik DA, Chang DL, Colucci WS. Interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-? decrease collagen synthesis and increase matrix metalloproteinase activity in cardiac fibroblasts in vitro. Circ Res 2000;86:1259-5.
52. Liu P, Sun M, Sader S. Matrix metalloproteinases in cardiovascular disease. Can J Cardiol 2006; 22Suppl B:25-30.
53. EL-Deeb ME, Abd-EL-Hafez AA. Can Vitamin C affect the KBrO3 induced oxidative stress on left ventricular myocardium of adult male albino rats? A histological and immunohistochemical study. J Microsc Ultrastruct 2015;3:120-6.
54. El Boghdady NA. Antioxidant and antiapoptotic effect of proanthocyanidin and ginkobiloba extract against doxorubicin-induced cardiac injury in rats. Cell Biochem Funct 2013;31:344-1.
55. Klebanoff SJ. Myeloperoxidase: Friend and foe. J Leukoc Biol 2005;77:598-25.
56. Suzuki M, Mori M, Miura S. Omeprazole attenuates oxygenderived free radical production from human neutrophils. Free Radic Biol Med 1996;21:727-1.
57. Reyes A, Galindo MM, Garc?a L. Ouabaininsensitive, Naþ-stimulated ATPase of several rat tissues: Activity during a 24 h period. Physiol Res 2009;58:693-9.
31 Views | 26 Downloads
How to Cite
Original Article(s)