PROTECTIVE AND CURATIVE EFFECTS OF FRESH ORANGE JUICE (CITRUS SINENSIS L.) SUPPLEMENTATION AGAINST LIVER INJURIES, HEPATIC LIPID, PROTEIN, AND DNAOXIDATIVE DAMAGE INDUCED CYCLOOXYGENASE-2/PROSTAGLANDIN E2 INFLAMMATORY PATHWAY IN FEMALE IRRADIATED RATS

  • GEHAN M MORSY Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Women’s College, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
  • ALYAE MS GABAL Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Women’s College, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Abstract

Objective: Our study aimed to examine the protective and curative ability of fresh orange juice (OJ) (Citrus sinensis L.) to counteract the adverse side effects of ionizing radiation (IR) on hepatic tissues of female irradiated rats and that has not been studied in advance.


Methods: Forty-nine adult female Sprague-Dawley albino rats (170±5 g) were divided into four sets of 12 animals, except the healthy control group contained 10 rats only and the irradiated control group contained 15 rats and was divided as follow Group I: Healthy control; Group II: Irradiated control, rats receiving a single dose (20 gray absorbed dose [Gy]) of whole-body γ-rays; Group III: Protective group, rats received (5 ml OJ/kg body weight) once daily for 14 days and after 24 h exposed to irradiation; and Group IV: Curative group, then rats were submitted to irradiation than after 24 h, treated with (5 ml OJ/kg body weight) once every day for 14 successive days.


Results: Our results explored that fresh OJ contains significant amounts of antioxidants as flavonoids and polyphenols and consequently pre- or post-fresh OJ supplementation to female irradiated rats attenuated significantly (p≤0.05) hepatic lipid, protein, and DNA-oxidative damage, hepatic inflammation, and activated inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin E2 pathway, liver fibrosis, impaired liver functions, and hepatic lipid metabolism when compared with irradiated control rats. Furthermore, fresh OJ improved significantly (p≤0.05) the hepatic antioxidant capacity in protective and curative groups in comparison with the irradiated control group.


Conclusion: The current research illustrated that fresh OJ may improve and normalize the various hepatic biochemical abnormalities resulted from irradiation due to its high content of active constituents of flavonoids and polyphenols. It is advised for people who exposed to IR, especially females, to consume about (5 ml OJ/kg body weight) before exposure as the most significant improvements were recorded in the protective group that supplemented with OJ before irradiation.

Keywords: Orange juice, Irradiation, Female, Oxidative DNA-damage, Hepatic, Hepatic tissues impairment and cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin E2 inflammatory pathway

References

1. Youness ER, Agha FE, El-Toukhy SE, El-Naggar SM, Selim AI, Ibrahim AM. The protective effect of orange juice on glyphosate toxicity in adult male mice. J Chem Pharm Res 2016;8:13-28.
2. Dhakal D, Sharma KR. Estimation of total phenol and antioxidant activity of Zanthoxylum armatum of Nepalese origin. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2020;12:37-40.
3. Rolle AC, Veronique BV, Chupin J, Bouillot L. Nutritional composition of orange juice: A comparative study between French commercial and home-made juices. Food Nutr Sci 2016;7:252-61.
4. Abdallah IZ, Ahmed MM, Montaser SA, Hafez SS. Efficiency of kumquat fruit (Fortunella margarita) extract against hepatotoxicity and infertility induced by gamma irradiation in male albino rats. Egypt J Rad Sci Appl 2019;32:187-99.
5. Kim J, Jung Y. Radiation-induced liver disease: Current understanding and future perspectives. Exp Mol Med 2017;49:e359.
6. Nakajima T, Ninomiya Y, Nenoi M. Radiation-induced reactions in the liver-modulation of radiation effects by lifestyle-related factors. Int J Mol Sci 2018;19:3855.
7. National Research Council. Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals. 4th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1995.
8. Khan RA, Mallick N, Feroz Z. Anti-inflammatory effects of Citrus sinensis L., Citrus paradisi L. and their combinations. Pak J Pharm Sci 2016;29:843-52.
9. Arnous A, Makrisand DP, Kefalas P. Effect of principal polyphenol components in relation to antioxidant characteristics of aged red wines. J Agric Food Chem 2001;49:5736.
10. Joyeux M, Lobestein A, Anton R, Morier F. Comparative antilipoperoxidant, antinecrotic and scavenging properties of terpenes and biflavones from ginkgo and some flavonoids. Planta Med 1995;61:126-29.
11. Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. J Food Sci Technol 1995;28:25-30.
12. Cheng W, Xiao L, Ainiwaer A, Wang Y, Wu G, Bao Y. Molecular responses of radiation-induced liver damage in rats. Mol Med Rep 2015;11:2592-600.
13. Draper HH, Hadley M. Malondialdehyde determination as index of lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol 1990;186:421-31.
14. Beutler E, Duroun O, Kelly BM. Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. J Lab Clin Med 1963;61:882-8.
15. Reznick AZ, Packer L. Determination of protein carbonyl group content. Methods Enzymol 1994;233:263-57.
16. Paglia DE, Valentine WN. Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. J Lab Clin Med 1967;70:158-69.
17. Misra HP, Fridovich I. The role of superoxide anion in the autoxidation of epinephrine and a simple assay for superoxide dismutase. J Biol Chem 1972;247:3170-5.
18. Kulmacz RJ, Lands WE. Requirements for hydroperoxide by the cyclooxygenase and peroxidase activities of prostaglandin H synthase. Prostaglandins 1983;25:531-40.
19. MacDonald RP. Serum total lipids assay. In: Standard Methods of Clinical Chemistry. Vol. 2. New York: Academic Press; 1970. p. 215-22.
20. Richmond W. Preparation and properties of a cholesterol oxidase from Nocardia sp. and its application to the enzymatic assay of total cholesterol in serum. Clin Chem 1973;19:1350-6.
21. Bucolo G, David H. Quantitative determination of serum triglycerides by the use of enzymes. Clin Chem 1973;19:476-82.
22. Levesque R. SPSS Programming and Data Management: A Guide for SPSS and SAS Users. 4th ed. Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc.; 2007.
23. Haidari F, Keshavarz SA, Rashidi MR, Shahi MM. Orange juice and hesperetin supplementation to hyperuricemic rats alter oxidative stress markers and xanthine oxidoreductase activity. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2009;45:285-91.
24. Favela-Hernández J, González-Santiago O, Ramírez-Cabrera M, Esquivel-Ferriño P, Camacho-Corona M. Chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. Molecules 2016;21:247.
25. Essa OS, Isamil AA, Moustafe AM. Histological and histochemical studies on the role of caffeine on radiation damage of the liver. Egypt J Hosp Med 2002;6:45-62.
26. Çak?r T, Y?ld?zhan K, Huyut Z, Uyar A, Ar?han O. Radioprotective profile of Urtica dioica L. Seed extract on oxidative DNA-damage in liver tissue and whole blood of radiation-administered rats. Braz J Pharm Sci 2020;56:1-9.
27. Abd El Azime AS, El-Kabany H. Therapeutic and protection effectiveness of quercetin in ?-irradiated rats. Egypt J Rad Sci Appl 2011;24:217-27.
28. Abdelhalim MA, Moussa SA. The biochemical changes in rats’ blood serum levels exposed to different gamma radiation doses. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2013;7:785-92.
29. Eid FA, El-Gendy AM, Zahkouk SA, El-Tahway NA, El-Shamy SA. Ameliorative effect of two antioxidants on the liver of male albino rats exposed to electromagnetic field. Egypt J Hosp Med 2015;58:74-93.
30. Nakajima T. Roles of sulfur metabolism and rhodanese in detoxification and anti-oxidative stress functions in the liver: Responses to radiation exposure. Med Sci Monit 2015;21:1721-5.
31. Azab K, Meky N, El-Deghidy E, Azoz G. Response of COX2/PGE2 inflammatory pathway to brown seaweed extract in rats exposed to gamma radiation. World J Nucl Sci Technol 2017;7:189-205.
32. Jang S, Lee S, Koo H, Lee J, Park Y, Namkoong S, Sohn E. Gamma irradiation-induced liver injury and its amelioration by red ginseng extract. Mol Cell Toxicol 2017;13:461-9.
33. Nada AS, Hawas AM. Rhubarb extract ameliorates some biochemical disorders induced by gamma irradiation in male rats. J Rad Res Appl Sci 2012;5:393-408.
34. Martius G, Alwahsh SM, Fränk MR, Hess CF, Malik AI. Hepatic fat accumulation and regulation of FAT/CD36: An effect of hepatic irradiation. Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2014;7:5379-92.
35. Kurowska EM, Borradaile NM, Spence MD, Carroll KK. Hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary Citrus juices in rabbits. Nutr Res 2000;20:121-9.
36. Ali Z, Naeem N, Farooq Z, Masood S, Hafeez-Urehmanf M. Effect on lipid profile parameters by the addition of orange juice in diet of hypercholesterolemic patients. J Nutr Food Sci 2015;5:428.
37. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation, BEIR VII, Phase 2 Report. Washington, DC: The National Academy Press; 2006.
38. Marci R, Mallozzi M, di Benedetto L, Schimberni M, Mossa S, Soave I, et al. Radiations and female fertility. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2018;16:112.
39. Narendran N, Luzhna L, Kovalchuk O. Sex difference of radiation response in occupational and accidental exposure. Front Genet 2019;10:260.
Statistics
17 Views | 13 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
M MORSY, G., and A. M. GABAL. “PROTECTIVE AND CURATIVE EFFECTS OF FRESH ORANGE JUICE (CITRUS SINENSIS L.) SUPPLEMENTATION AGAINST LIVER INJURIES, HEPATIC LIPID, PROTEIN, AND DNAOXIDATIVE DAMAGE INDUCED CYCLOOXYGENASE-2/PROSTAGLANDIN E2 INFLAMMATORY PATHWAY IN FEMALE IRRADIATED RATS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 13, no. 10, July 2020, pp. 77-82, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i10.38855.
Section
Original Article(s)