COMPARISON OF INSULIN RESISTANCE WITH THE SEVERITY OF METABOLIC SYNDROME
Objective: Insulin resistance (IR) means a reduced ability of insulin to stimulate glucose utilization. IR is related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk as the IR forms the basis for atherogenesis and acts as a major risk factor for atherosclerotic CVD.
Methods: Total of 195 participants were recruited divided into three groups based on the presence of metabolic abnormalities as control Group I (with <3 components of metabolic syndrome [MS]), MS group as Group II (with any 3 components of MS), and severe MS as Group III (with more than three components of MS).
Results: Results showed that fasting blood sugar (FBS) and glycated hemoglobin showed a significant difference between the groups (p<0.001), whereas fasting insulin and IR were higher in severe MS which showed statistically significant difference (p<0.001) in comparison with control and MS group.
Conclusion: IR is one of the principal factors for the development of MS and further threw light that the increase in the IR level proportionately increases the severity of MS.
2. Wilcox G. Insulin and insulin resistance. Review article. Clin Biochem Rev 2005;26:19-39.
3. Howard G, O’Leary DH, Zaccaro D, Haffner S, Rewers M, Hamman R, et al. Insulin sensitivity and atherosclerosis. The insulin resistance atherosclerosis study (IRAS) investigators. Circulation 1996;93:1809-17.
4. McFarlane SI, Banerji M, Sowers JR. Insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:713-8.
5. Kahn SE, Hull RL, Utzschneider KM. Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Nature 2006;444:840-6.
6. Abel ED, Karen M, O’Shea, Ramasamy R. Insulin resistance: Metabolic mechanisms and consequences in the heart. Arteioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2012;32:2068-76.
7. O’Neil S, O’Driscoll L. Metabolic syndrome: A closer look at the growing epidemic and its associated pathologies. Obes Rev 2015;16:1-12.
8. Bhagyashree N, Ramaswamy C, Ganesh M. Importance of lipid-lipoprotein ratios as a diagnostic tool in metabolic syndrome population. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol 2018;8:1668-71.
9. Maiti S, Das KL. Estimation of serum Vitamin D3 level in metabolic syndrome patients: An OPD based study in the urban area of Bhubaneswar. Int J Clin Biochem Res 2015;2:33-40.
10. Rodriguez SM, Li X, Shaffer ML, He F, Bixler EO, Alexandros NV, et al. Insulin resistance and circadian rhythm of cardiac autonomic modulation. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2010;9:85.
11. Moreira GC, Cipullo JP, Ciorlia LA, Cesarino CB, Martin JF. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Association with risk factors and cardiovascular complications in an urban population. PLoS One 2014;9:1-10.
12. Roopa AN, Reddy KS, Chandrashekara P, Umabai KR, Madhuvana HS. Study of microalbuminuria and insulin resistance in patients with essential hypertension and metabolic syndrome and its relationship to target organ damage. J Med Sci Health 2015;1:5-9.
13. Grundy SM, Brewer HB Jr., Cleeman JI, Smith SC Jr., Lenfant C; American Heart Association; National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Definition of metabolic syndrome: Report of the national heart, lung and blood institute/American heart association conference on scientific issues related to definition. Circulation 2004;109:433-8.
14. International Diabetes Federation. The IDF Consensus Worldwide Definition of the Metabolic Syndrome. Brussels: International Diabetes Federation; 2006. p. 1-16.
15. Thaman RG, Arora GP. Metabolic syndrome: Definition and pathophysiology the discussion goes on! Review article. J Phys Pharm Adv 2013;3:48-56.
16. Kassi E, Panagiota P, Gregory K, George C. Metabolic syndrome: Definitions and controversies. BMC Med 2011;9:1-13.
17. Reaven GM. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes 1988;37:1595-607.
18. Gabir MM, Hanson RL, Dabelea D, Imperatore G, Roumain J, Bennett PH, et al. The 1997 American diabetes association and 1999 world health organization criteria for hyperglycemia in the diagnosis and prediction of diabetes. Diabetes Care 2000;23:1108-12.
19. Rader DJ. Effect of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and intra abdominal adiposity on the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Am J Med 2007;120:S12-8.
20. Bonora E, Kiechl S, Oberhollenzer F, Egger G, Bonadonna RC, Muggeo M, et al. Impaired glucose tolerance, Type II diabetes mellitus and carotid atherosclerosis: Prospective results from the Bruneck study. Diabetologia 2000;43:156-64.
21. Al-Biati HA, Sahib AS, Ismail SH. Effects of metformin and glibenclaimide combination in Iraqi obese patients with metabolic syndrome. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:501-3.
22. Wei M, Gaskill SP, Haffner SM, Stern MP. Effects of diabetes and level of glycemia on all cause and cardiovascular mortality. The San Antonio heart study. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1167-72.
23. Martin KR, James BM, Lisa MS, Ralph BD, Peter WW. Insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome and incident cardiovascular events in the Framingham offspring study. Diabetes 2005;54:3252-7.
24. Montani JP, Antic V, Yang Z, Dulloo A. Pathways from obesity to hypertension: From the perspective of a vicious triangle. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002;26:S28-38.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.