• HEMALATHA M Department of Botany, PVKN Government College (Autonomous), Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh India.
  • BHAKSHU L Department of Botany, PVKN Government College (Autonomous), Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh India.
  • YASODAMMA N Department of Botany, S.V. University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh India.



Cassia montana, Caesalpiniaceous, Phytochemicals, Antioxidants and antibacterial activity


Objective: The leaf extracts of Cassia montana (Caesalpiniaceae) were being used for leucorrhea and rheumatic pains used by the certain tribal people in Andhra Pradesh. The present studies focused on the antibacterial, antioxidant activity of leaf extracts of C. montana which provide the scientific basis for its folklore applications in various ailments.

Methods: Ethyl-alcohol and water extracts of C. montana (leaf) were screened for phytochemicals, antimicrobial activity and antioxidant activity using in vitro methods. The total phenolics were estimated using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent with reference to gallic acid, whereas the antioxidants of the extracts were quantified using ammonium molybdate reduction assay with reference to the ascorbic acid. The antibacterial activity was studied by disk-diffusion method and the radical scavenging assay by DPPH discoloration method with reference to ascorbic acid.

Results: The leaf extracts were tested for antibacterial, antioxidants, and phytochemical screening and found the significant phytoconstituents as steroids, lignins, flavonoids, phenols, glycosides, tannins, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars in ethanol and aqueous extracts. The tested extracts exhibited significant antibacterial activity. It is also observed that ethanolic extracts are more effective with minimum inhibition concentrations values at 28 and 32 μg/disk against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus followed by Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with 80 and 90 μg/disk. Total polyphenols quantified in alcohol and water extracts with reference to the gallic acid is 108 and 267 mg/g dry weight of leaf, respectively. Total antioxidants quantified in alcohol and water extracts with reference to the ascorbic acid is 70 and 85 mg/g dry weight of leaf, respectively. The tested extracts were exhibited strong effect on the discoloration of DPPH indicated the significant scavenging activity.

Conclusion: The present study revealed that the tested extracts were exhibited significant anti-bacterial antioxidant activity along with the diversified phytochemicals. Hence, the leaf extracts of C. montana were having potential role in the treatment of ethno botanical health claims.


Download data is not yet available.


Osawa K, Matsumoto T, Maruyama T, Tagikuchi T, Okuda K, Takazoe I. Studies of the antibacterial activity of plant extracts and their constituents against periodontopathic bacteria. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll 1990;31:17-21.

Joy PP, Thomas J, Mathew S, Skaria BP. Zingiberaceous Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Odakkali, Asamannor, Kerala, India: Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Research Station; 1998.

Kunle O, Okogun J, Egamana E, Emojevwe E, Shok M. Antimicrobial activity of various extracts and carvacrol from Lippia multiflora leaf extract. J Phytomed 2003;10:59-61.

Roopashree TS, Raman D, Shobha RR, Narendra C. Antibacterial activity of antipsoriatic herbs: Cassia tora, Momordica charantia and Calendula officinalis. Int J Appl Res Nat Prod 2008;3:20-8.

Kunle OF, Egharevba HO. Preliminary studies on Vernonia ambigua: Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of the whole plant. Ethnobot Leaflets 2009,3:1216-21.

Begum S, Hassan SI, Siddiqui BS, Shaheen F, Ghayur AH. Triterpenoids from the leaves of Psidium guajava. Phyochemistry 2002;61:399-403.

Claudio VJ Jr., Bolzani VS, Maysa F, Barreiro EJ, Young MC, Daniela T, et al. Further bioactive piperidine alkaloids from the flowers and green fruits of Cassia spectabilis. J Nat Prod 2004;67:908-10.

Meena V, Baruah H, Parveen R. Cassia auriculata: A healing herb for all remedy. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2019;8:4093-7.

Mahanthesh MC, Manjappa AS, Sherikar AS, Disouza JI, Shinde MV. Biological activities of Cassia occidentalis Linn: A systematic review. World J Pharm Res 2019;8:400-7.

Rehmani AH. Cassia fistula Linn: Potential candidate in the health management. Pharmacognosy Res 2015;7:217-24.

Ratnam KV, Raju RR. Folk medicine used for common women ailments by Adivasis in Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh. Indian J Tradit Knowl 2005;4:267-70.

Savithramma N, Yugandhar P, Babu R, Prasad K. Validation of indigenous knowledge of yanadi tribe and local villagers of veyilingala kona-a sacred grove of Andhra Pradesh Indian. J Pharm Sci Res 2014;6:382-8.

Basha SK, Reddy PS. Ethnobotanical plants of Veligonda hills, Southern Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India. Plant Sci Today 2017;4:1-11.

Ganapaty S, Thomas PS, Ramana KV, Vidyadhar KN, Chakradhar V. A review of phytochemical studies of Cassia species. J Nat Remedies 2002;2:102-20.

Gamble JS. Flora of the Presidency of Madras. Vol. 1-3. Dehradun, India: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh; 1995.

Gibbs RD. Chemotaxonomy of Flowering Plants. Vol. 1. Montreal, London McGill Queen’s University Press; 1974.

Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods. A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. 3rd ed. Berlin: Springer; 1998.

Evans WC, Trease GE. Pharmacognosy. 16th ed. Amsterdam: Saunders, Elsevier; 2009.

Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Pharmacognosy. Maharashtra: Nirali Prakashan; 2014.

Bauer AW, Kirby WM, Serris JC, Turck M. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disc method. Am J Clin Pathol 1966;45:493-6.

National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Test. 6th ed. Wayne, Pennsylvania: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards; 1997. p. M100-S9.

Hagerman AE, Riedl KM, Jones GA, Sovik KN, Ritchard NT, Hartzfeld PW. High molecular weight plant polyphenolics (tannins) as biological antioxidants. J Agric Food Chem 1998;46:1887-92.

Preito P, Pineda M, Aguilar M. Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: Specific application to the determination of Vitamin E. Anal Biochem 1999;269:337-41.

Iwu W, Duncan AR, Okunji CO. New antimicrobials of plant origin in. Perspectives on new crops and new uses. In: Janick J, editor. Plant Breeding Reviews. Alexandria, Virginia: ASHS Press; 1999.

Duraipandiyan V, Ayyanar M, Ignacimuthu S. Antimicrobial activity of some ethnomedicinal plants used by Paliyar tribe from Tamil Nadu, India. BMC Complement Altern Med 2006;6:35.

Djeussi DE, Noumedem JA, Seukep JA, Fankam AG, Voukeng IK, Tankeo SB, et al. Antibacterial activities of selected edible plants extracts against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. BMC Complement Altern Med 2013;13:164.

Halliwel B. Reactive oxygen species in living systems: Source, biochemistry, and role in human disease. Am J Med 1991;91:14S-22S.

Kanwar JR, Kanwar RK, Burrow H, Baratchi S. Recent advances on the roles of NO in cancer and chronic inflammatory disorders. Curr Med Chem 2009;16:2373-94.

Chiavaroli V, Giannini C, de Marco S, Chiarelli F, Mohn A. Unbalanced oxidant-antioxidant status and its effects in pediatric diseases. Redox Rep 2011;16:101-7.

Yamagishi S, Matsui T. Nitric oxide, a Janus-faced therapeutic target for diabetic microangiopathy-friend or foe? Pharmacol Res 2011;64:187-94.

Wu YY, Li W, Xu Y, Jin EH, Tu YY. Evaluation of the antioxidant effects of four main theaflavin derivatives through chemiluminescence and DNA damage analyses. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2011;12:744-51.

Zubia M, Fabre MS, Kerjean V, Lann KL, Stiger-Pouvreau V, Fauchon M, et al. Antioxidant and antitumoral activities of some Phaeophyta from Brittany coasts. Food Chem 2009;116:693-701.

Medina AL, Lucero ME, Holguin FO, Estell RE, Posakony JJ, Simon J, et al. Composition and antimicrobial activity of Anemopsis californica leaf oil. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:8694-8.

Romero CD, Chopin SF, Buck G, Martinez E, Garcia M, Bixby L. Antibacterial properties of common herbal remedies of the southwest. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;99:253-7.

Sharma S, Dangi M, Wadhwa S, Vivek D, Tiwari A. Antibacterial Activity of Cassia tora leaves. Int J Pharm Biol 2010;1:84-6.

Seyyednejad SM, Motamedi H, Vafei M, Bakhtiari A. The antibacterial activity of Cassia fistula organic extracts. Jundishapur J Microbiol 2014;7:e8921.

Hemen D, Lalita L. A review on anthraquinones isolated from Cassia species and their applications. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 2012;3:291-319.

Hamed MM, Mohamed MA, Ahmed WS. Antioxidant potential, antitumor activity and phenolic profile of Phoenix dactylifera Linn. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:130-6.

Saranya VT, Gowrie SU. Phytochemical analysis and in vitro studies on antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities using Casuarina equisetifolia bark extracts. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018;10:118-25.

Saivenkatesh K, Sujana P, Vishnupriya M, Venkataramireddy K. Preliminary phytochemical screening of leaf extracts of Cassia montana in different solvents. Int J Pharm Biol Sci 2019;9:178-81.



How to Cite

M, H., B. L, and Y. N. “PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTIBACTERIAL, AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF CASSIA MONTANA HEYNE EX ROTH LEAF EXTRACTS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 14, no. 2, Jan. 2021, pp. 41-46, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2021.v14i2.40065.



Original Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)