• GARGI TRIPATHI Gynaecologist, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
  • NIRAJ CHOUREY Gynaecologist, Babina, Uttar Pradesh, India.
  • HIREMATH RN Public Health Specialist, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
  • NAMRITA SANDHU Department of Army College of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
  • POOJA SINHA Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pandit Bhagwat Dayal Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India.
  • PRIYANKA PATEL Department of GMERS Medical College and General Hospital, Himmatnagar, Gujarat, India.
  • PALLAVI VASWANI Department of People’s Medical and Dental College, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.




Body mass index, Obesity, Pregnancy, Outcome


Background: Mothers who are overweight or obese during pregnancy and childbirth, are known to be at risk of significant antenatal, intrapartum, postpartum, and neonatal complications.

Objectives: The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of high pre pregnancy body mass index (BMI) (<12 weeks of gestation) on the occurrence of maternal pregnancy outcome. A longitudinal observational study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital. In Group I, 50 antenatal women with gestational age <12 weeks BMI 18.5–35 kg/m2 and having singleton pregnancies were included in the study, while 50 women with normal BMI formed the Group II. Both groups were followed up throughout pregnancy and post-natal to assess complication during pregnancy, labor, and puerperium.

Results: The mean BMI in Group I and Group II was 27.516 kg/m2 and 21.433 kg/m2. The prevalence of anemia was 40% and 26% among two groups. Antenatal and post-natal complications were gestational diabetes mellitus (Group I - 28% and Group II - 6%), preeclampsia (Group I - 16% and Group II - 2%), required induction of labor (Group I - 26% and Group II - 6%), preterm labor (Group I - 4% and Group II - 16%), and meconium staining of liquor (GroupI-20% and GroupII-12%), and the difference was statistically significant among two groups. Newborn complications were weight ≥2.5 kg (Group I - 74% and Group II - 48%), neonatal intensive care unit admission requirement (Group I - 26% and Group II - 17%), and the difference was statistically significant among two groups. Other complications which were not statistically significant among two groups were oligohydramnios (Group I - 2% and Group II - 4%), polyhydramnios (Group I - 6% and Group II - 4%), and appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, and respiration score at 1 min <7 (Group I - 14% and Group II - 6%).

Conclusion: Pregnancy complications related to maternal BMI is a growing problem. Both lean and obese mothers carry an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Given the major economic and medical consequence of pregnancy in these women, all attempts should be made to maintain a normal BMI in women of childbearing age. Pre-pregnancy counseling, health programs and appropriate multidisciplinary management should be done.


Download data is not yet available.


Leddy MA, Power LM, Schulkin J. The impact of maternal obesity on maternal and fetal. Health Rev Obstet Gynecol 2008;1:170-8.

Teresa K, Andrew S, Jackie R, Counts H, Eglash A, Schrager S. Obesity and women’s health: An evidence-based review. J Am Board Fam Med 2011;24:175-85.

Siega-Riz AM, Laraia B. The implications of maternal overweight and obesity on the course of pregnancy and birth outcomes. Matern Child Health J 2006;10:S153-6.

Bhattacharya S, Campbell DM, Liston WA, Bhattacharya S. Effect of body mass index on pregnancy outcomes in nulliparous women delivering singleton babies. BMC Public Health 2007;7:168.

Riz AM, Laraia B. The implications of maternal overweight and obesity on the course of pregnancy and birth outcomes. Matern Child Health J 2006;10:153-6.

Andreasen KR, Andersen ML, Schantz AL. Obesity and pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004;83:1022-9.

Guelinckx I, Devlieger R, Beckers K, Vansant G. Maternal obesity: Pregnancy complications, gestational weight gain and nutrition. Obes Rev 2008;9:140-50.

Heslehurst N, Simpson H, Ells LJ, Rankin J, Wilkinson J, Lang R, et al. The impact of maternal BMI status on pregnancy outcomes with immediate short-term obstetric resource implications: A meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2008;9(6):635-83.

Un-Nisa M, Aslam M, Ahmed SR, Rajab M, Kattea L. Impact of obesity on fetomaternal outcome in pregnant Saudi females. Int J Health Sci (Qassim) 2009;3:187-95.

Uebel K, Pusch K, Gedrich K, Schneider KM, Hauner H, Bader BL. Effect of maternal obesity with and without gestational diabetes on offspring subcutaneous and preperitoneal adipose tissue development from birth up to year-1. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2014;14:138.

Abenhaim HA, Kinch RA, Morin L, Benjamin A, Usher R. Effect of pre-pregnancy body mass index categories on obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. Gynecol Obstetr 2003;21:24-8.

Voigt M, Straube S, Zygmunt M, Krafczyk B, Schneider KT, Briese V.Obesity and pregnancy--a risk profile. Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol 2008;212:201-5.

Ehrenthal DB, Jurkovitz C, Hoffman M, Jiang X, Weintraub WS. Prepregnancy body mass index as an independent risk factor for pregnancy-induced hypertension. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2011;20:67-72.

Sahu MT, Agrawal A, Das V, Pandey A. Impact of maternal body mass index on obstetric outcome. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2007;33:655-9.

GaltierDereure F, Boegner C, Bringer J. Obesity and pregnancy: Complications and cost. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1242S8.

John J, Mahendran M. Maternal and fetal outcomes of obese pregnant women: A prospective cohort study. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstetr Gynecol 2017;6:725-9.

UshaKiran TS, Hemmadi S, Bethel J, Evans J. Outcome of pregnancy in a women with an increased body mass index. Int J Obstetr Gynecol 2005;112:768-72.

Elíasdóttir ÓJ, Harðardóttir H, Þórkelsson P. The effect of maternal weight on pregnancy outcome. Laeknabladid 2010;96:691-6.

Satpathy HK, Fleming A, Frey D, Barsoom M, Satpathy C, Khandalavala J. Maternal obesity and pregnancy. Postgrad Med 2008;120:E1-9.

Sebire NJ, Jolly M, Harris JP, Wadsworth J, Joffe M, Beard RW, et al. Maternal obesity and pregnancy outcome: A study of 287,213 pregnancies in London. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001;25:117582.

Nohr EA, Vaeth M, Baker JL, Sorensen TI, Olsen J, Rasmussen KM. Combined associations of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with the outcome of pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:1750-9.

Vinturache AE, Mcdonald S, Slater D, Tough S. Perinatal outcomes of maternal overweight and obesity in term infants: A population-based cohort study in Canada. Sci Rep 2015;5:9334.



How to Cite

TRIPATHI, G., N. CHOUREY, H. RN, N. SANDHU, P. SINHA, P. PATEL, and P. VASWANI. “‘EFFECT OF BODY MASS INDEX ON PREGNANCY OUTCOME’ - A PROSPECTIVE STUDY”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 14, no. 11, Nov. 2021, pp. 60-64, doi:10.22159.ajpcr.2021.v14i11.43122.



Original Article(s)