STUDY OF GENERALISED ANXIETY DISORDER AND FACTORS AFFECTING IT DURING POSTNATAL PERIOD.
Keywords:Generalised anxiety disorder, Postnatal period, postpartum
Background: Anxiety disorders remain the commonest mental disorder in general population. Both these disorders are common in pregnant women and postpartum period and are underdiagnosed. There is a paucity of research on mental disorders and their risk factors among women during postnatal period in India. This study aims to estimate the incidence of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and depression and explore the common associated factors among postnatal women in India.
Aim: The present study aims to study the incidence and risk factors of generalised anxiety disorders among mothers attending the outpatient department clinic (OPD) for vaccination of their children or gynaecology OPD for follow up.
Methods: Total of 180 women of postpartum period, up to 6 months, was randomly selected and assessed using self-report questionnaire GAD-7 for GAD. General demographic details were obtained via a revalidated proforma. Incidence and risk factors for both these mental disorders were assessed.
Results: The incidence of GAD was found to be 31.11%. Primigravida mothers scored higher on GAD-7 score than multigravida mothers and incidence of GAD was also higher in primigravidas mothers (p=0.042). There was no significant association between age of mother, socioeconomic status of mother, and sex of the child born, with development of GAD in the postnatal period. Substance abuse in husband was significantly related to development of GAD in women in postnatal period.
Conclusion: A significant proportion of women had generalised anxiety disorder. Pregnancy for the first time was associated with increased risk of GAD. Substance abuse by husband is significantly associated with development of GAD and depression during postnatal period.
Tyano S., Keren M., Herrman H., Cox J., Parenthood and Mental Health. A bridge
between infant and adult psychiatry, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, 2010.
Rubinchik SM., Kablinger AS., Gardner JS., Medications for Panic Disorder and
Generalized Anxiety Disorder During Pregnancy. Prim Care Companion J Clin
Psychiatry. 2005; 7(3): 100–105.
Davis, EP., Snidman N., Wadhwa, PD, Glynn LM, Schetter CD, & Sandman C A. (2004). Prenatal maternal anxiety and depression predict negative behavioural reactivity in infancy. Infancy, 6, 319–331.
Coplan RJ, O’Neil K, Arbeau KA. Maternal anxiety during and after pregnancy and infant temperament at three months of age. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health. 2005;19(3):199–215.
Field T, Diego M, Hernandez-Reif M, Figueiredo B, Deeds O, Ascencio A, Schanberg S, Kuhn C. Comorbid depression and anxiety effects on pregnancy and neonatal outcome. Infant Behav Dev. 2010 Feb;33(1):23-9.
Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JBW, Löwe B. A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the GAD-7. Arch Intern Med 2006;166 (10):1092-7.
Wenzel A, Haugen EN, Jackson LC, Brendle JR. Anxiety symptoms and disorders at eight weeks postpartum. J Anxiety Disord. 2005;19(3):295-311.
Hashima E Nasreen 1, Zarina N Kabir, Yvonne Forsell, Maigun Edhborg. Prevalence and associated factors of depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy: a population based study in rural Bangladesh. BMC Womens Health 2011 Jun 2;11:22. doi: 10.1186/1472-6874-11-22.
Niloufer S. Ali, Iqbal S. Azam , Badar S. Ali, Ghurnata Tabbusum, Sana S. Moin. Frequency and Associated Factors for Anxiety and Depression in Pregnant Women: A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study. Scientific World Journal. 2012; 2012: 653098.
Anniverno R, Bramante A, Mencacci C, et al. New Insights into anxiety disorders. In: Durbano F, ed. Anxiety disorders in pregnancy and the postpartum period. London, UK: INTECH Open Access Publisher, 2013: 260–85
Reck C; Struben K; Backenstrass M; Stefenelli U; Reinig K; Fuchs T; Sohn C; Mundt C. Prevalence, onset and comorbidity of postpartum anxiety and depressive disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2008; 118(6):459-68.
Austin MP; Hadzi-Pavlovic D; Priest SR; Reilly N; Wilhelm K; Saint K; Parker G. Depressive and anxiety disorders in the postpartum period: how prevalent are they
and can we improve their detection? Arch Womens Ment Health. 2010; 13(5):395-401.
Savarimuthu RJ, Ezhilarasu P, Charles H, Antonisamy B, Kurian S, Jacob KS. Post-partum depression in the community: a qualitative study from rural South India. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2010 Jan;56(1):94-102. doi: 10.1177/0020764008097756. Epub 2009 Nov 11. PMID: 19906768.
Dubey C, Gupta N, Bhasin S, Muthal RA, Arora R. Prevalence and associated risk factors for postpartum depression in women attending a tertiary hospital, Delhi, India. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2012 Nov;58(6):577-80. doi: 10.1177/0020764011415210. Epub 2011 Aug 5. PMID: 21821632.
Desai Nimisha D, Mehta Ritambhara Y, Ganjiwale Jaishree. Study of prevalence and risk factors of Postpartum depression. National Journal Of Medical Research 2012;2(2):194198.
Shivalli S, Gururaj N (2015) Postnatal Depression among Rural Women in South India: Do Socio-Demographic, Obstetric and Pregnancy Outcome Have a Role to Play? PLoS ONE 10(4): e0122079. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122079
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Harshal Nutanrao Pise, Manish Tiwari, Mahima Tiwari
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.