PREGELATINIZED CASSAVA STARCH PHTHALATE AS FILM-FORMING EXCIPIENT FOR TRANSDERMAL FILM OF KETOPROFEN
This present study was intended to expand utilization of starch as transdermal film-forming excipient. In the previous study, starch have been physically and chemically modified through complete pregelatinization and phthalatization process in aqueous-alkaline medium (pH 8-10), resulting pragelatinized cassava starch phthalate (PCSPh). The obtained PCSPh possesed the degree of subtitution of 0.0541 Â± 0.0019 and showed different physical, chemical, and functional properties compared to pragelatinized cassava starch (PCS). PCSPh showed higher gel strength value than PCS, a good characteristic to be used as film forming for transdermal dosage forms. In this study, transdermal film were produced using PCSPh as film-forming, glycerin and propylenglycol as plasticizer and ketoprofen as drug model. This transdermal film showed good mechanical properties, including folding endurance, elongation and tensile strength. The in-vitro drug release study showed that 71.78 â€“ 107.07% of ketoprofen has been released from transdermal film in 4 hours by diffusion-controlled mechanism. In vitro penetration study using Franz diffusion cell showed that 72.77 â€“ 108.04% of ketoprofen were able to penetrate the skin membran of Spague-Dawley rats with the flux of 1.499 â€“ 2.311 mg/cm2.hour in first three hours and 0.865 â€“ 1.301 mg/cm2.hour up to 8 hour. Therefore, it was concluded that PCSPh had good characteristics to be applied as film-forming excipient for transdermal dosage form.
Langer, R. Transdermal drug delivery: past progress, current status, and future prospects. Adv. Drug Dev. Rev ; 2004 : 56 , 557â€“558.
Cui, S.W., Xie, S.X., & Liu, Q. Starch Modiï¬cations and Applications. In Food Carbohydrates: Chemistry, Physical Properties,and Applications. Florida: CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. 2005.
BeMiller, J., & Whistler, R. Starch: Chemistry and Technology, 3rd ed. New York: Academic Press, Elsevier Inc; 2009. p. 629-657.
Jarowenko., W. Acetylated Starch and Miscellaneous Organic Esters. In: Wuzburg O.B Modified Starces : Properties and Uses. CRC Press Inc Florida; 1989. p.51-73.
Billmers, R.L., & Tessler, M.M. Method of Preparing Intermediate DS Starch Esthers in Aquoeus Solution. US Patent; 1994 : 5,321,123.
Jerachaimongkol, S., Chonhenchob, V., Naivikul, O., & Poovarodom, N. Modification of Cassava Starch by Esterification and Properties of Cassava Starch Ester Films. Kasetsart J. (Nat. Sci.); 2006 : 40, 148 â€“ 151.
Shohin, I.E., Kulinich, J.I., Ramenskaya, G.V., & Vasilenko, G.F. Evaluation of In Vitro Equivalence for Drugs Containing BCS Class II Compound Ketoprofen. Dissolution Technologies; 2009: 26 â€“ 29.
Tettey-Amlalo, R.N.O. In Vitro Release of Ketoprofen from Propietary and Extemporaneously Manufactured Gels. A Thesis of Master Degree of Pharmacy, Rhodes University, Grahamstown; 2005.
Nesseem, D.I., Eid, S.F., & El-Houseny, S.S. Development of novel transdermal self-adhesive ï¬lms for tenoxicam, an anti-inï¬‚ammatory drug. Life Sciences; 2011: 89, 430 â€“ 438.
Guyot, M & Fawaz, F. Design and in vitro evaluation of adhesive matrix for transdermal delivery of propranolol. International Journal of Pharmaceutics; 2000: 204, 171 â€“ 182.
United States Pharmacopoeia 30th edition. USA: The Official Compendia of Standards; 2007.
Krista, W., & Bucks, D. Studying in vitro skin penetration and drug release to optimize dermatological formulation. In: Pharmaceutical Technology. New York: Advanstar Commucination Inc. 2003.
Rowe, R. C., Sheskey, P. J., & Owen, S. C. Handbook of pharmaceutical excipients, 6th ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press; 2009. p. 124-127, 691-694, 725-733.
Siepmann. J & Peppas, N.A.. Modeling of drug release from delivery systems based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 2001: 48, 139â€“157.
Touitou, E., & Barry, B.W. Enhancement in Drug Delivery. CRC Press: Taylor & Francis Group; 2007. p. 215-278.
Huang, X., & Brazel, C.S. Review on the importance and mechanism of burst release in matrix controlled drug delivery system. Journal of Controlled Release; 2001: 73, 121 â€“ 136.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.